DENTAL AMALGAM MERCURY SOLUTIONS  ............................. 

DAMS Intl.   St Paul, Mn 55105, 1-651-644-4572


Studies Find High Mercury Exposure and Adverse Effects from Dental Amalgam: 


1.  Mercury is the most toxic substance that people commonly are exposed to. The U.S. EPA drinking water standard is 2 parts per billion.  Mercury is in the top 3 of toxic exposures affecting large numbers of people. (1,4)


2. Dental amalgam is an unstable mixture of 50% liquid mercury with other toxic metals including copper, silver, tin.  Since mercury is a gas at room temperature it vaporizes continuously from the amalgam mixture resulting in high levels of mercury in the oral air and saliva, as can be easily measured. Since amalgam is also a mixture of metals in an electrolyte (saliva) this results in galvanic currents that pump mercury and other toxic metals into the gums and oral mucosa, from which it is carried throughout the body by the blood and nerves. Exposure from amalgam or gold crowns over amalgam base result in exposure to all 3 forms of mercury, since inorganic mercury or vapor are converted to organic mercury in the intestines by bacteria. amalgam fillings are the largest source of methyl mercury in many people who have amalgams.  Mercury vapor and organic mercury both readily cross the blood-brain barrier and are dispersed in the brain. (17,18,13-15,24,27,32,34)


3. Dental Amalgam Fillings are the Largest Source of Mercury in Most People who have amalgam fillings (2-22,32), and Daily Mercury Exposure from Amalgam Commonly Exceeds Government Health Standards for Inorganic Mercury(vapor). Exposure to  EMF or Wi-fi  increases mercury vapor release in amalgams and causes increased chronic damage.  Susceptibility factors  that decrease the body�s detoxification ability against toxic metals is a major factor in who is affected and to what extent. (4,10,19,21,32,34)                                                   


4. Medical tests show that those with several amalgam fillings have on average 10 times more mercury in feces and saliva than those without amalgam, and after amalgam replacement levels of mercury in feces and saliva decline approx. 90%, while mercury level in urine declines 75% on average.   (19,13-15) 


5.  Elemental and inorganic mercury are methylated in the body to methyl mercury by bacteria, yeasts, etc. so that amalgam fillings are the largest source of methyl mercury in many people who have amalgams  (17,18,13-15)


6.  Mercury from amalgam is passed on to fetuses and infants through mother�s blood and milk, and Mother�s dental amalgam fillings are the largest source of mercury in most fetuses and infants prior to mercury containing vaccinations (12,26,21,32).  One flu vaccination (or other vaccination that contains 25 micrograms of mercury thimerosal) exceeds the Canadian health standard for daily mercury exposure to an infant by a factor of 250 and for a child by a factor of 100(20). 


7.  Dental amalgam is the largest source of mercury in most children who have amalgam fillings other than from vaccines, and mercury level is directly proportional to the number of mercury fillings (11,21,32).  Developmental effects on infants occur at low levels of mercury exposure and many thousands are known to be affected.  Autistic children had a higher mercury exposure during pregnancy due to maternal dental amalgam and thimerosal-containing immunoglobulin shots(12b). In vitro, mercury and thimerosal in levels found several days after vaccination inhibit methionine synthetase (MS) by 50%. Normal function of MS is crucial in biochemical steps necessary for brain development, attention and production of glutathione, an important antioxidative and detoxifying agent.   Autistic children have significantly decreased level of reduced glutathione.        (25,26,12)         


8. Mercury vapor from amalgam is the most dangerous form of mercury, most rapidly crossing blood-brain barrier and mother�s placenta   and causing adverse developmental effects at lower levels than other forms.   Mercury and other toxic metals commonly cause immune reactivity which is a factor in many chronic conditions    ( 28,26,21,29,33)


9.  In addition to the high mercury volatility and galvanic currents between mixed metals   in the mouth, electromagnetic fields ( EMF ) from appliances such as computer monitors, cell phone, and wi-fis cause currents in the metals which carry mercury into the body.                            (24,21)


10. Mercury in those with amalgam fillings or dental workers accumulates to much higher levels in the major body organs like the brain, heart, liver, and kidneys that receive a lot of blood than in those without amalgam.  Mercury blocks or damages metabolic or hormonal processes in all organs at very low levels of exposure.      (16,21,22,32)


11. Chronic  a dverse health effects from amalgam are common in adults. Mercury is extremely cytotoxic, neurotoxic,  immunotoxic , endocrine disrupting, inflammatory, and a reproductive toxin.   Mercury commonly causes chronic  neurologica l,  immune and autoimmune cardiovascular hormonal oral , and  reproductive conditions .  (1,27,23,22,21,32)


12. Those who replace amalgam fillings and reduce body mercury levels commonly recover or see significant improvement, as documented by peer-reviewed studies and  thousands of clinical case histories.                                       (23,31,21,32)          


13. Dental Amalgam is the largest source of  mercury in sewers  and sewer sludge, and thus a major source in water bodies, fish, crops, and the atmosphere- due to sludge  outgasing  and high emissions from crematoria (30).




Special interests like the ADA which was founded to support use of dental amalgam have been successfully  misleading the public regarding the true nature of dental amalgam for years by use of misinformation, money, and politics to suppress the truth. But the science is clear that dental amalgam is a mixture of approximately 50 % liquid mercury with various metals including copper, silver, tin to form an unstable alloy that results in  high levels  of toxic metal exposure including mercury over time.  Since mercury is a gas at room temperature the mercury vaporizes continuously from the amalgam, resulting in high levels of mercury in the oral air and saliva, as is easily measured( 13-18).  Additionally since amalgam is a mixture of metals in an electrolyte (saliva) this produces galvanic currents ( battery effect ) that pumps mercury and other toxic metals into the gums and oral mucosa, from which it is taken by the blood and nerves throughout the body (24,21). Approximately 80% of the mercury in the oral air is absorbed by the blood in the lungs (7,24) and is distributed throughout the body, along with the other mercury released by amalgam, rapidly passing out of the blood, crossing cell membranes and accumulating in the major organs that receive large amounts of blood- the brain, heart, liver, kidneys, and hormone glands( 16).  Over time this, along with exposures to other  synergistic toxics , commonly results in chronic degenerative health conditions affecting all major body organs, as has been well documented in the medical literature (21,22). 

          A large National Institute of Dental Research study has confirmed other previous study results that found that the current type of amalgam dental fillings being used in the U.S. leak significant amounts of extremely toxic mercury into the body and are the number one source of mercury in people (5,2-21).  The study measured mercury levels in the blood and urine of over 1000 military personnel and found a high significant correlation to the number of amalgam filling surfaces in the mouth.  Like several other recent studies, the study found that amalgam fillings are not stable because of mercuryís high volatility and galvanic action between the different metals in the mouth.  For this large military population that had a range of from 0 to 66 amalgam filling surfaces, each 10 surfaces added approximately 1 microgram of mercury per liter of urine excreted, meaning total mercury excreted in urine averaged about 3.1 micrograms per day, with soldierís levels with over 49 amalgam surfaces averaging over 8.7 micrograms in urine.  The average level for those with fillings was 4.5 times that of the controls without amalgam, and those with over 49 surfaces averaged over 8 times controls without amalgam. Together with the considerably larger amount of mercury excreted daily through the digestive tract and sweat, the daily mercury excretion would amount to over 30 micrograms per day on average and much more for some individuals, as supported by other studies and medical lab tests (6,15,19,30) (Over 90 % of the mercury in the urine was inorganic mercury, the kind that comes from fillings, but the majority of mercury in blood was methyl mercury.  Inorganic mercury has been found to be methylated in the mouth and intestines to methyl mercury by bacteria, yeasts, etc. so that dental fillings are the largest source of methyl mercury in most dental staff or people with amalgam fillings (18,17,7,13-15,21,29). 

       For this population, it was determined that the exposure from amalgam fillings was the primary source of mercury exposure, and on average the exposure exceeded the levels that would be consistent with U.S. Government Standards (MRL) for daily mercury exposure (20).   The studyís findings were consistent with the findings of many other recent such studies (21,24), including a similar study testing 20,000 people at a University Health Clinic in Germany (6), as well as the findings of the World Health Organization Scientific Panel on inorganic mercury exposure and U.S. ATSDR (4).                                             

      Because of the extreme toxicity of mercury, the U.S. EPA drinking water standard for mercury is 2 parts per billion, which allows for not over 4 micrograms per day mercury exposure for an average adult.   The U.S.EPA mercury health guideline for elemental mercury exposure (vapor) is 0.3 micrograms per cubic meter of air (0.3 ug/M3).  For the average adult breathing 20 M3 of air per day, this amounts to an exposure of approximately 6 micrograms per day. The U.S. Department of Health, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ASTDR) standard (MRL) ‑for acute inhalation exposure to mercury vapor is 0.2 micrograms Hg/M3, which translates to approx. 4 ug/day for the average adult (20). The EPA health guideline for methyl mercury is 0.1 ug/kg body weight per day or 7 ug for the average adult (4,20), and the MRL for methyl mercury is 0.3 ug/kg body weight/day (4).        

        The corresponding tolerable daily exposure developed in a report for the Canadian Health Agency, Health Canada, is .014 ug/kg body weight or 1 ug/day for average adult (2).  The permissible level for a child would be less.  But the levels of the average daily exposures found in this study and other studies (6-10,19) were above all of these health guidelines for mercury exposure.        

The reference average  level of mercury in feces  (dry weight) for those tested at  Doctors Data Lab  with amalgam fillings is .26 mg/kg, compared to the reference average level for those without amalgam fillings of .02 mg/kg (19).  (over 10 times that of the population w/o amalgam).   A Swedish lab that does fecal tests for mercury had similar results (19). Tests on people who have had amalgam replaced likewise confirm these results (13-15).   Government and Scientific panels  as well as large numbers of medical studies have confirmed dental mercury amalgam is the number one source of mercury in most people and affects millions (2-22,30)


In a large study of a group with amalgams, a group without amalgams, and a group that had undergone amalgam replacement- using saliva mercury measurements, it was concluded that amalgam is the main source of organic mercury in most people. Those with amalgams on average had more than 4 times as much organic mercury as either group without amalgam. Those with amalgam had over 10 times the total mercury as those without (18).   And mercury from fish was controlled for in the study and not a factor in these results.  Mercury vapor and inorganic mercury are well documented to be methylated to methyl mercury in the mouth and intestines by bacteria, yeast, and other methyl donors.  These results are similarly supported by other studies (7,13-15,17,29). 


The main reasons for the high exposure levels from mercury are the high volatility of mercury (which is vaporizing constantly at room temperature) and the galvanic currents in the mouth generated by mixed metals in an electrolyte(saliva )( 24).  Mercury has a relatively high vapor pressure and vaporizes at room temperature.  The rate of mercury volatilization is directly related to temperature so in the body it is even more volatile.  The vapor saturation concentration in air of 20 milligrams of mercury per cubic meter of air is much higher than the safety limit.   The ATSDR safety standard (MRL) for mercury is 0.2 micrograms of mercury per cubic meter of air. Thus, mercury readily vaporizes to above the MRL level.  Studies have found that on average for each additional amalgam filling, the level of mercury in saliva increases by 1.5 micrograms per Liter (6,21), while for each additional 10 amalgam surfaces the amount of mercury in urine increases by 1 microgram per liter (5,21).  Saliva and feces have the highest levels of mercury that are measurable by tests.  Many studies have overlooked the fact that metal crowns over amalgam cause exposure levels as much as amalgam fillings, and also taking them into account would improve precision of regression equations for the level of mercury (24). 


      Other studies in addition to the studies that the Government Health Standards were based on have found adverse health effects at very low levels of  exposure( 4,21) and developmental effects on infants and children at very low levels of exposure(25,26,12), along with finding that mercury vapor from a motherís fillings is readily transferred through the motherís blood across the placenta to a fetus and also through motherís milk(26,21). 


       These findings increase the urgency to advise the public of the clear danger in the use of mercury in fillings and to reconsider the policy of using mercury in dental fillings.   Based on such studies, several other countries, such as Sweden, Australia, Norway, Japan, and Canada, have already adopted restrictions or warnings on the use of mercury in fillings, such as for children, pregnant women, women of child bearing age, people with damaged kidneys or immune systems, and in the mouth adjacent to other metals (21).  Amalgam manufacturers have also warned against some of the uses currently made of amalgam in dentistry in the U.S. (21)


         Studies are also available that confirm adverse health effects from amalgam fillings (23,27,22,21,32) and clinically document that many thousands of people have recovered or had significant improvement in over 40 chronic conditions including very serious autoimmune and neurological conditions after replacement of amalgam fillings (23,31,22,21,32).  Fact sheets are available from the DAMS website with cites to over 4,000 medical study references covering the statements and issues in this press release.


 DAMS is currently working with thousands of people in the U.S. dealing with serious health effects caused by exposure to mercury from amalgam and urges everyone to find out more about this major problem and to get involved in resolving these health safety issues.  DAMS can provide information and help to anyone who is interested or who thinks they might have health problems related to their amalgam fillings.  

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1. ATSDR/EPA Priority List for 2019: Top 20 Hazardous Substances, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services,

2. Mark Richardson, Environmental Health Directorate, Health Canada, Assessment of   Mercury Exposure and Risks from Dental Amalgam, 1995, Final Report; & (b)  Apolipoprotein E genotyping as a potential biomarker for mercury neurotoxicity. Godfrey ME et al;  J   Alzheimers   Dis.  2003 Jun;5(3):189-95.

3. World Health Organization (WHO),1991, Environmental Health criteria 118 , Inorganic Mercury, WHO, Geneva;

4. (a) Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, U.S. Public Health Service, 2020, " Toxicological Profile for Mercury ,

& (b) Media Advisory, New MRLs for toxic substances , MRL: elemental mercury vapor/inhalation/chronic & MRL: methyl mercury/ oral/ acute;

 5. Mercury concentrations in urine and whole blood associated with amalgam exposure in a US military population., J Dent Res 1998 Mar;77(3):461-71, Kingman A, Albertini T, Brown LJ  (population of over 1000 Air Force personnel; found each 10 amalgam surfaces increased mercury in urine by approx. 1 microgram per liter); & (b) The association between amalgam dental surfaces and urinary mercury levels in a sample of Albertans, a prevalence study. Dutton DJ,  Fyie  K, et al;   J   Occup   Med   Toxicol .  2013 Aug 29;8(1):22.

6. Dr. P.Kraub & M.Deyhle, Universitat Tubingen- Institut fur Organische Chemie, Field  Study on the Mercury Content of Saliva , 1997; (tests at  Tuebingen  Univ. Health Clinic of over 20,000 people, amount of mercury in saliva increased on average approx. 1.5 micrograms  per day per amalgam filling; 10% had mercury level greater than 100 micrograms; higher mercury levels were correlated with more chronic health conditions)

7.  "Speciation of mercury excreted in feces from individuals with amalgam fillings", Arch Environ Health, 1998, 53(3):205‑13, A.  Engqvist  et al; & Dept. of Toxicology & Chemistry, Stockholm Univ., National Institute for Working Life, 1998. 

8. "Mass Balance and Systemic Uptake of Mercury Released from Dental Fillings", Water, Air, and Soil Pollution, 80(1‑4):59‑67, 1995, I.  Skare ; & I.  Skare  ,  A.  Engqvist  , Human exposure to mercury and silver released from dental amalgam restorations.  Arch Environ Health. 1994 Sep-Oct;49(5):384-94; & (c)  Is dental amalgam safe for humans? The opinion of the scientific committee of the European Commission. Mutter J.  J   Occup   Med   Toxicol .  2011 Jan 13;6(1):2.9.  

Eigenschaften und Einsatzgebiete des  Chelatbildners:DMPS ",  Z.Umweltmedizin , 1997,5(1):38‑,  B.Arnold ; & Diagnostik un  Monitorung von Schwermetallbelastungen,I,II,ZWR , 1996,105(10):586‑569 & (11):665‑; &  B.Engin -Deniz et al, Die queckssilberkonzentration im spichel zehnjariger  kinder in  korrelationzur anzahl  und  Grobe iher a malgamfullungen,  Z eitschrift  fur Stomatologie,1992, 89:471-179 (largest source of I & O hg)

10. "People with high mercury uptake from their own dental amalgam fillings",  Occup   Envir  Med , 1995, 52:124‑128. L.  Barregard  et al,

11. Childhood urine mercury excretion: dental amalgam and fish consumption as exposure factors.  M. Levy et al,  Arch Environ Health . 1994 Sep-Oct;49(5):384-94: &   Mercury concentrations in the urine of children with and without amalgam fillings, A. Schulte et al; Schweiz  Monatsschr   Zahnmed . 1994;104(11):1336- 40;

12. Mercury Burden of Human Fetal and Infant Tissues, Eur J Pediatr153: 607-610,1994; & (b)  Mercury and autism: accelerating evidence? M utter J, Naumann J, et al;  Neuro Endocrinol Lett.  2005 Oct;26(5):439-46.  G.  Drasch  et al, & (c)   Concentration of mercury, cadmium, and lead in breast milk from Norwegian mothers: Association with dietary habits, amalgam and other factors,  Science of the Total Environment ,  Volume 677 , 10 August 2019, Pages 466-473.

 13. "Mercury in saliva and feces after removal of amalgam fillings", Toxicol  Appl Pharmacol   1997, 144(1): 156‑162.  L.Bjorkman  et al,

14.  "Mercury  levels  in plasma and urine after removal of all amalgam restorations : the  effect  of u sing  r ubber dams ",  Dent Mater 1997, Sep;13(5): 297-304,  Berglund  A,  Molin  M;  & "kinetics of mercury in blood and urine after mercury removal"  J Dent Research , 1995, 74: 420-, M. Molin et al,

15. "Long Term Mercury Excretion in Urine after Removal of Amalgam Fillings",  Int Arch  Occup  Health , 1994, 66: 209‑212. J. Begerow  et al,

16. "The relationship between mercury concentration in human organs and predictor variables, Sci Total Environ , 138(1‑3): 101‑115, 1993, J.A. Weiner et al; & (b) "Mercury concentrations in the human brain and kidneys and exposure from amalgam fillings",  Swed  Dent J 1987; 11:179-187, M. Nylander et al, & (c) Correlation of dental amalgam with mercury in brain tissue. Prosthet  Dent , 1987,58(6),704-7, D.W. Eggleston et al; & (d) Mercury, cadmium, and lead in kidney cortex of the general Swedish population: a study of biopsies from living kidney donors. Barregard  L, S valander  C, et al. Environ Health  Perspect . 1999 Nov;107(11) :867-71.

17. (a) Rethinking the Dental   Amalgam   Dilemma: An Integrated Toxicological Approach. Int J Environ Res Public Health.   2019   Mar 22;16(6). Jirau -Colon H, Adam W, et al. & Ď

 (b) Methylation of mercury from dental amalgam and mercuric chloride by oral streptococci in vitro.  Heintze  U et al:  Scand   J Dent Res.  1983 Apr; 91(2):150-2.

 18.(a) Dental amalgam fillings and the amount of organic mercury in human saliva.   Caries Res 2001 May-Jun;35(3):163-6,  Leistevuo  J et al; &(b) Methyl mercury from dental amalgams in the human mouth, Journal of Nutritional & Environmental Medicine ,1996, Sellars WA, Sellars R.  Univ. Of Texas Southwestern Medical School, & (c) Methylation of Mercury from dental amalgam and mercuric chloride by oral Streptococci., Scan. J. Dent. Res . 1983, 91:150-152, Heintze  et al; & (d) "Mercury reactions in the human mouth with dental amalgams" Water, Air, and Soil pollution , 80:103-107, L.I. Liang et al, & (e) Transformations of inorganic mercury by Candida albicans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Appl Environ Microbiol . 1991 January; 57 (1): 245-247, S  Yannai , L  Duek , et al; & (f) Cobalamin-mediated mercury methylation by Desulfovibrio Desulfuricans LS. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1 993 Jan;59(1):290-5, Choi SC, Bartha R.; & (g) [In vitro Study of  Strepcoccus   Mutans  in the Plaque on the Surface of Amalgam Fillings on the Conversion of Inorganic Mercury to Organic Mercury] [Article in Chinese], Shanghai Kou  Qiang  Yi  Xue . 2000, Wang J, Liu Z, Jun;9(2):70-2; & Methylmercury, amalgams, and childrens health.  Environ Health  Perspect . 2006; 114:149; Guzzi  G,  Severi  G, et al,

19.  Doctors Data Inc.; Fecal Elements Test;  P. O.Box  111, West  Chicago, Illinois, 601860111;  

20. Common Exposure Levels from Amalgam Fillings and Government Health Standards Commonly Exceeded,

21. Health Effects of amalgam fillings and results of replacement of amalgam fillings . Over 4000 medical study references (most in Medline) documenting common high mercury exposures from amalgam, that vapor from amalgam is the most dangerous form of mercury to the fetus, and the mechanisms by which mercury causes over 40 chronic health conditions

22. Neurological & Autoimmune conditions : CFS, FM, MS, Parkinsonís, ALS, Alzheimerís, Lupus, Crohnís, Scleroderma: the connection to mercury immune reactivity and amalgam fillings ; (Over 4,000 peer-reviewed references)

23. Documentation of recovery from 60,000 clinical cases of serious adverse health effects after replacement of amalgam fillings in over 30 chronic health conditions, B Windham (Ed.) (Over 50 peer-reviewed studies)

24. The battery in your mouth: oral galvanic currents and metals in the mouth, and interactions with EMF, 

25. Effect of Mercury and Other Toxic Metal Exposure on Cognitive and Behavioral Problems of Children - including ADD, dyslexia, juvenile delinquency, and crime,   

26. Transfer of Mercury from Motherís Amalgams and Breast Milk to the Fetus and Developmental Effects of Mercury on Infants ,

27. Adverse Oral Health Problems related to Amalgam Fillings , B. Windham (Ed.)  (> 100 peer-reviewed studies)

28.  DAMS, Comparison of health and developmental effect of mercury vapor to methylmercury ; B Windham (Ed)

29.    Blood Test is not a reliable indicator of mercury body burden or toxicity ; consider using - The  Quicksilver Sci. Tri Test :

 or Doctorís Data urine test  or Melisa Immune Reactivity Test ,

30. DAMS, Dental amalgam is the largest source of mercury in sewers and sewer sludge and has major environmental effects that affect most people. ; &  Characterization of methyl mercury in dental wastewater and correlation with sulfate-reducing bacterial DNA.  ZhaoX  et al;  Environ Sci Technol.  2008 Apr 15;42(8):2780-6.


31. DAMS, Sample of 1500 who had amalgam replacement and percentages that recovered from various chronic conditions,      &

     Most referenced studies can be found in NIH National Library of Medicine Medline,

32.  Heavy Metals and Chronic Diseases, Dr. Dietrich  Klinghardt , M.D., PhD; & Mercury Toxicity and Systemic Elimination Agents, D.  Klinghardt  & J Mercola(DO), J of Nutritional and Environmental Medicine, 2001, 11:53-62; &  Amalgam DetoxKlinghardt  Academy of Neurobiology, 2008;

Mercury Involvement in Neuronal Damage and in Neurodegenerative Diseases.  Cariccio  VL et el;  Biol Trace Elem Res.  2018 May 18; & Characterization of methyl mercury in dental wastewater and correlation with sulfate-reducing bacterial DNA.  ZhaoX  et al;  Environ Sci Technol.  2008 Apr 15;42(8):2780-6; &  Methylation of mercury from dental amalgam and mercuric chloride by oral streptococci in vitro.  Heintze  U et al:  Scand   J Dent Res.  1983 Apr;91(2):150-2.

33 Increased frequency of delayed type hypersensitivity to metals in patients with connective tissue disease. Stejskal V, Bjorklund G et al;  J Trace Elem Med Biol.  2015;31:230-6; & (b) LTT-MELISA is clinically relevant for detecting and monitoring metal sensitivity. Valentine-Thon E, Muller K, et al;  Neuro Endocrinol Lett.  2006 Dec;27 Suppl 1:17-24;  Metal-specific lymphocyte reactivity is downregulated after dental metal replacement.  Yaqob  A, Stejskal V et al;  Neuro Endocrinol Lett.  2006 Feb-Apr;27(1-2):189-97 .

34. The International Academy of Oral Medicine and Toxicology, IAOMT,  Dental Mercury Facts


  technical contact person:   B Windham       850-878-9024

   Research Director   DAMS Intl