DENTAL AMALGAM MERCURY Solutions ............................www.amalgam.org
DAMS Intl. St Paul MN 55105
Mercury body burden and toxicity tests and factors that significantly complicate usefulness of standard tests.
Blood tests are generally not a reliable indicator of mercury body burden or mercury toxicity(595,600,etc.). Better options are often available depending on what is to be determined (595,etc.). The blood is pumped throughout the body and rapidly crosses into organs and tissue where it is primarily inorganic mercury, so blood measures primarily recent acute exposures, not body burden. For example, although mercury vapor from dental amalgam has been documented to be the largest source of mercury in most people who have several amalgam fillings, the average length of time of mercury vapor in the blood is less than 10 seconds(370). High mercury body burden and mercury toxicity and effects are more common than acknowledged due to failure of the blood test to reliably identify mercury body burden or those most affected by toxicity effects. Doctors with experience at treating mercury toxicity mostly use other tests or combinations of tests.
Mercury amalgam dental fillings have been found to be the largest source of mercury vapor, inorganic mercury, and methyl mercury in most people with several amalgam fillings or metal crowns over amalgam (1,599). But although mercury has been found to be readily methylated in the body by bacteria, yeasts, etc. and also to be demethylated to inorganic mercury complexes, these processes are inconsistent depending on the individual, and there is no test that is reliable for measuring all forms of mercury, as will be shown.
A large U.S. Centers for Disease Control epidemiological study, NHANES III, found that those with more amalgam fillings (more mercury exposure) have significantly higher levels of chronic health conditions(543a). A 2009 study found that inorganic mercury levels in people have been increasing rapidly in recent years(543b). It used data from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s National Health Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) finding that while inorganic mercury was detected in the blood of 2 percent of women aged 18 to 49 in the 1999-2000 NHANES survey, that level rose to 30 percent of women by 2005-2006. Surveys in all states using hair tests have found dangerous levels of mercury in an average of 22 % of the population, with over 30% in some states like Florida and New York(543c).
Elemental mercury vapor and methyl mercury are rapidly transmitted throughout the body via the blood and readily enter cells and cross the blood-brain barrier, as well as the placenta of pregnant women (38,61,287,311,361,596). Mercury vapor is transmitted across cell membranes at much higher levels than inorganic mercury and also higher levels than organic mercury. Significant levels are able to cross the blood brain barrier, placenta, and also cellular membranes into major organs such as the heart since the oxidation rate of Hg0, though relatively fast, is slower than the time required by pumped blood to reach these organs(290,370). Thus the level in the brain and heart is higher after exposure to Hg vapor than for other forms(360,370). But methyl mercury also has a relatively short half life in blood, so even for methyl blood mostly measures recent exposures rather than body burden.
While mercury vapor and methyl Hg readily cross cell membranes and the blood-brain barrier, once in cells they form inorganic mercury that does not readily cross cell membranes or the blood brain barrier readily and is responsible for the majority of toxicity effects. Thus inorganic mercury in the brain has a very long half life(85,273,274,503b,etc.).
Mercury vapor passes through the blood rapidly and accumulates in other parts of the body such as the brain, kidneys, liver, thyroid gland, pituitary gland, etc. (370,543b,600). The half-life of mercury vapor in blood is approximately 10 seconds before passing into cells and forming inorganic complexes (370). Thus blood test measures mostly recent exposure and mostly organic mercury(370,595). Hair mercury level likewise is mostly organic and primarily measures organic mercury (76), while urine test levels correlate most highly with the number of dental amalgams (599). However, all 3 mercury measures are generally positively correlated with both number of dental amalgams and amount of mercury containing fish eaten. (600) But also note that urine mercury level is not a reliable indicator of mercury body burden since the majority of mercury excretion is through the liver rather than the kidneys and mercury excretions decline over time whatever the body burden due to damage done to the kidneys(600). Also autopsy studies have found that higher levels of mercury accumulate in other more sensitive organs such as the brain, heart, and thyroid(600).
Kidneys have a lot of hydroxyl(SH) groups which mercury binds to forming inorganic complexes - causing accumulation in the kidneys and inhibiting excretion(503). As damage occurs to kidneys over time, mercury is less efficiently eliminated (11,36,57,183,216,260,503), so urine tests are not reliable for body burden after long term exposure. Some researchers suggest hair offers a better indicator of mercury body burden than blood or urine(279,21ab,66,84), though still not totally reliable and hair is a better indicator for organic mercury than inorganic. But hair mercury levels have been found to be inversely related with mercury toxicity effects and body burden in those most affected by mercury due to having low detoxification ability for mercury(86,577). Blood allele type has been found to have a significant effect on ability to excrete toxic metals and accumulation of toxic metals in the body (577,86). This significantly affects mercury test levels by blood, urine, or hair. If a hair test is used as an indicator of mercury toxicity, the pattern of hair levels of other metals and minerals is a better indication of mercury body burden and toxicity than the hair level of mercury, since mercury exposure causes significant changes in cell membrane permeability that often be seen as imbalances from the standard for other elements tested(229).
Mercury and other toxic metals exert part of their toxic effects by replacing essential metals such as zinc and magnesium at their sites in enzymes (43,427,443,464). Metalloprotein (MT) are involved in metals transport and detoxification(442,464). Mercury inhibits sulfur ligands in MT and in cell membranes inactivates MT that normally bind cuprous ions (477), thus allowing buildup of copper to toxic levels in many people and malfunction of the Zn/Cu SOD function. Prenatal and neonatal mercury exposure has been found to be able to block the MT function in this manner and has been to result in MT dysfunction in the majority of autism patients tested, preventing detoxification and excretion of mercury and other toxic metal (86,464). This also represents a major confounding of mercury test results for either blood, urine, or hair test.
Hair tests are useful since they provide information on other toxic metal exposures and essential mineral imbalances (229). It is documented that essential mineral deficiencies and imbalances given a normal diet are a strong indication of mercury toxicity, due to mercury’s causing cell membrane permeability changes, absorption problems, and enzyme blockages (229,600). A challenge test using a chelator like DMPS or DMSA is a more reliable test for mercury body burden (290,360,273).
Non organic forms of mercury are methylated in the body by bacteria, yeast, methyl donors to methyl mercury, so even though the largest source of mercury in most people is mercury vapor from amalgam (599), due to the short half life of vapor and conversions to methyl, most of what is measured in the blood is methyl. And the inorganic accumulation in organs is not measured. Ethyl mercury from vaccines has been the largest source of mercury in most infants (598).
Feces is the major path of excretion of mercury from the body, having a
higher correlation to systemic body burden than urine or blood, which tend to
correlate with recent exposure level (6,21abd,35,36,79,80,183,278). For this
reason many researchers consider feces to be the most reliable indicator of
daily exposure level to mercury or other toxics. The average level of mercury in
feces of populations with amalgam fillings is as much as 1 ppm and approx.
10 times that of a similar group without fillings (79,80,83,335,386,528,25),
with significant numbers of those with several filings having over 10 ppm
and 150 times those without fillings (80). For those with several fillings daily
fecal mercury excretion levels range between 20 to 200 ug/day.
The saliva test is another good test for daily mercury exposure, done
commonly in Europe and representing one of the largest sources of mercury
exposure (84,600). Mercury level in saliva has been found to give a better
indication of body levels than blood or urine levels( 36,600). Saliva mercury is
proportional to the number of amalgam fillings or surfaces, but for those without
amalgam is often below detection limits unless fish has recently been eaten (76,84).
There is only a weak correlation between blood or urine or hair mercury
levels and body burden or level in a target organ (36,157,183,278,11,
Tests commonly used to test for mercury toxicity effects include the
blood lymphocyte immune reactivity test(MELISA) which is used to test for
immune reactivity to mercury related to autoimmune conditions like MS,
Lupus, Rheumatoid Arthritis, CFS, Fibromyalgia, oral lichen planus, etc.
(342,369,405,600). The majority of those with chronic fatigue or MS were
found to be immune reactive to mercury, and both reactivity and symptoms
declined after amalgam replacement. Another test commonly used to test for
the common metabolic and detoxification system blockages caused by
mercury toxicity is the comprehensive liver detoxification test(386).
It utilizes blood, urine, and saliva tests. Another test commonly used to
assess metabolic toxicicity effects of mercury and other toxic exposures is
the fractionated porphyrin test (260). The type, level, and pattern of
metabolic waste porphyrins in urine indicate the extent of toxicity effects and
give an indication of the likely toxic source by the pattern. These tests
indicate not only degree of toxicity effects but also suggest treatments that
usually result in improvement of the condition.
Hair is ideal for measuring toxic metals accumulated in the body tissues over a period of time. The growing hair follicle is well supplied by the blood vessels, and blood transports essential and toxic elements present in the body. These elements are incorporated and stored in the hair proteins, which are evaluated in the test. Hair testing also gives the most accurate information about interactions between nutrients and toxic metals. Other advantages of hair testing are simple samples requirements and lower cost. The test measures 39 essential and toxic metals, with individual interpretation that will guide you in the treatment process. People who use hair dyes, perm or chemical treatments should be aware that the hair can sometimes give false high values due to the metals in the dyes or chemicals. We recommend cutting the most recently grown hair closest to the scalp. Hair samples do not expire. (but note: hair level is not reliable for mercury body burden)
Blood is best for measuring levels of essential minerals, determining possible deficiencies and recent exposure with heavy metals.
Urine and fecal testing reflects the levels of heavy metals deposited in the body tissues, but it is most accurate after taking a chelating agent that helps extract metals in urine. These tests are important for evaluating the efficacy of the chelating treatment since they measure levels of metals excreted from the body and the tissues. The urine and fecal elements tests are not recommended unless using a chelating agent before sample collection
EPA and National Academy of Sciences advise a limit of 5 micrograms per liter in blood and the upper level of mercury exposure recommended by the German Commission on Human Biomonitoring has also been lowered to 5 micrograms per liter in the blood(30), but adverse effects such as increases in blood pressure and cognitive effects have been documented as low as 1 ug/L cord blood, with impacts higher in low birth weight babies(308). The EPA reference level for hair mercury is 1 part per million, but adverse health effects have been documented in many with lower hair mercury levels(86,464,etc.). A nationwide hair test program by Greenpeace found that 22% of the U.S. population tested had hair mercury levels more than the EPA reference level, and several states had over 30% higher than the EPA reference level. The U.S. Department of Health, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ASTDR) standard (MRL) ‑for acute inhalation exposure to mercury vapor is 0.2 micrograms Hg/M3, which translates to approx. 4 ug/day for the average adult(20). The EPA health guideline for methyl mercury is 0.1 ug/kg body weight per day or 7 ug for the average adult, and the MRL for methyl mercury is 0.3 ug/kg body weight/day(599).
DAMS has compiled a record of over 60,000 clinical cases of recovery from over 30 chronic conditions caused by mercury toxicity, after reducing mercury exposures and detoxification treatment (597,86b,464).
(1) Leistevuo J et al, Dental amalgam fillings and the amount of organic mercury in human saliva. Caries Res 2001 May-Jun;35(3):163-6;
(6) D.W. Jones et al, “Survey of Mercury vapor in dental offices in Atlantic Canada”,Can. Dent. Assoc. J.
(11) Lamm O et al, “Subclinical effects of exposure to inorganic mercury revealed by somatosensory‑evoked potentials. Eur Neurol, 1985, 24:237-243; & (b)Altmann L, Sveinsson K, Visual evoked potentials in 6 year old children in relation to mercury and lead levels. Neurotoxicol Teratol 1998; 20(1):9-17; & © Chang YC,Yeh CY, Wang JD, “Subclinical neurotoxicity of mercury vapor revealed by a multimodality potential study of chloralkali workers”, Immunol, 1999, 117(3):482-8.
(21) R.A.Goyer,”Toxic effects of metals”in: Caserett and Doull’s Toxicology- TheBasic Science of
Poisons, McGraw-Hill Inc., N.Y., 1993; &(b) Goodman, Gillman, The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, Mac Millan Publishing Company, N.Y. 1985; &(c) Encyclopedia of Occumpational Health and Safety, International Labour Office, Geneva, Vol 2, 3rd Edition.;&(d) Arena, Drew, Poisoning. Fifth Edition. Toxicology-Symptoms-Treatment, Charles C. Thomas-Publisher, Springfield, Il 1986.
(25) C.Malmström, M.Hansson, M. Nylander, Conference on Trace Elements in Health and Disease. Stockholm May 25‑1992; & C. Malmstrom et al., “Silver amalgam: an unstable material”, Swedish paper translated in Bio-Probe Newsletter, Vol 9(1):5-6, Jan. 1993 & C.Malmstrom, “Amalgam derived mercury in feces”, Journal of Trace Elements in Experimental Medicine, 5, (Abs 122), 1992; Nylander et al. Fourth international symposium Epidemiology in Occupational Health. Como Italy Sept 1985, http://home.swipnet.se/misac/infpatient.html
(30) Weihe P, Grandjean P et al; Environmental epidemiology research leads to a decrease of the exposure limit for mercury] Ugeskr Laeger. 2003 Jan 6;165(2):107-11:
(35) Huggins HA, Levy,TE, Uniformed Consent: the hidden dangers in dental care, 1999, Hampton Roads Publishing Company Inc; & Hal Huggins, Its All in Your Head, 1997; & Center for Progressive Medicine, 1999, http://www.hugnet.com
(36) Sam Queen; Chronic Mercury Toxicity- New Hope Against an Endemic Disease. http://www.bioprobe.com; & F.L.Lorscheider et al, "Mercury exposure from silver tooth fillings: emerging evidence questions a paradigm", FASEB J 9:504-508,1995.
(38) S.Ziff and M.Ziff, Infertility and Birth Defects: Is Mercury from Dental Fillings a Hidden Cause?, Bio-Probe, Inc. ISBN: 0-941011-03-8.1987
(39)M.Inouye et al, Behavioral and neuropathological effects of prenatal methyl mercury exposure in
mice”. Neurobehav.Toxicol Teratol., 1985:7;227‑232; &(b) Z.Annau et al, Johns Hopkins Univ., School of Public Health, “Mechanisms of neurotoxicity and their relationships to behavioral changes”, Toxicology, 1988, 49(2): 219-25; &(c) Vinay SD, Sood PP. Inability of thiol compounds to restore CNS arylsulfatases inhibited by methyl mercury. Pharmacol Toxicol 1991 Jul;69(1):71-4;&(d) P.Grandjean et al, “MeHg and neurotoxicity in children”, Am J Epidemiol, 1999, 150(3):301-5: &(e) Budtz-Jorgensen E, Grandjean P, Keiding N, White RF, Weihe P. Benchmark dose calculations of methylmercury-associated neurobehavioral deficits. Toxicol Lett 2000 Mar 15;112-113:193- ; & (f) Crump KS, Kjellstrom T, Shipp AM, Silvers A, Stewart A. Influence of prenatal mercury exposure upon scholastic and psychological test performance: benchmark analysis of a New Zealand cohort. Risk Anal 1998 Dec;18(6):701-13; &(g) Grandjean P, Weihe P, Murata K, Sorensen N, Dahl R, Jorgensen PJ. Cognitive deficit in 7-year-old children with prenatal exposure to methylmercury. Neurotoxicol Teratol 1997 Nov-Dec;19(6):417-28
(43) (a)Knapp LT; Klann E. Superoxide‑induced stimulation of protein kinase C via thiol modification
and modulation of zinc content. J Biol Chem 2000 May 22; & A.Badou et al, “HgCl2-induced IL-4 gene expression in T cells involves a protein kinase C-dependent calcium influx through L-type calcium channels”J Biol Chem. 1997 Dec 19;272(51):32411-8.,
(76) Pesch A et al, Mercury concentrations in urine, scalp hair, and saliva in children from
Germany. J Expo Anal Environ Epidemiol 2002 Jul;12(4):252-258; & Mercury in human hair as an indicator of the fish consumption, Neuro Endocrinol Lett. 2008 Oct;29(5):675-9, Kruzikova K, Modra H, Kensova R, Skocovska B, Wlasow T, Svoboda T, Svobodova Z.
(79) L.Bjorkman et al, "Mercury in Saliva and Feces after Removal of Amalgam Fillings", Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, 1997, 144(1), p156-62; & (b) J Dent Res 75: 38-, IADR Abstract 165, 1996.
(80) M.Osterblad et al, "Antimicrobial and Mercury Resistance among Persons with and without Amalgam Fillings", Antimicrobial Agents and Chem, 39(11):2499,1995
(83) I.Skare et al, Swedish National Board of Occupational Safety and Health, "Human Exposure to Hg and Ag Released from Dental Amalgam Restorations", Archives of Environmental Health 1994; 49(5):384-394.
(84) Scalp hair and saliva as biomarkers in determination of mercury levels in Iranian women: Amalgam as a determinant of exposure; Fakour H, Esmaili-Sari A, Zayeri F. J Hazard Mater. 2009 Dec 4.
(85) J.A.Weiner et al,“The relationship between mercury concentration in human organs and predictor variables", Sci Tot Environ, 138(1-3):101-115,1993; & "An estimation of the uptake of mercury from amalgam fillings in Swedish subjects", Science of the Total Environment, v168,n3, p255-265, 1995.
(86) A.S. Holmes, M.F. Blaxill and B.E. Haley, Reduced Levels of Mercury in First Baby Haircuts
of Autistic Children; International Journal of Toxicology, 2003; www.safeminds.org/ ; & Autism Treatment Center, Baton Rouge, La, Experience from Treating 300 Mercury Toxic Autism Patients, http://www.healing-arts.org/children/holmes.htm#wethink
(157) L.J Goldwater, “Toxicology of Inorganic Mercury”, Annals: NY Acad Sci, 65:498-503, 1957; &
J.B.Nielsen et al, “Evaluation of Mercury in Hair & Blood as Biomarkers for Methyl mercury Exposure”, Arch of Toxicology, 1994,65(5):317-321.
(183) World Health Organization(WHO),1991, Environmental Health Criteria 118, Inorganic Mercury, WHO, Geneva; & Environ metal Health. Criterion. 101, Methyl Mercury; 1990.
(229) Andrew Hall Cutler, PhD, PE; Amalgam Illness:Diagnosis and Treatment; 1996 , www.noamalgam.com/
(260) J.S. Woods et al, “Urinary porphyrin profiles as biomarker of mercury exposure: studies on dentists”, J Toxicol Environ Health, 40(2-3):1993, p235-; & “Altered porphyrin metabolites as a biomarker of mercury exposure and toxicity”, Physiol Pharmocol, 1996,74(2):210-15,
(273) R.Schiele et al, Institute of Occupational Medicine, Univ. Of Erlamgem- Nurnberg, “Studies of organ mercury content related to number of amalgam fillings”,Symposium paper, March 12, 1984, Cologne, Germany; (& 38); & “Quecksilber-Mobiliztion durch DMPS bei Personen mit und ohne Amalgamfullungen”, Zahnarztl. Mitt, 1989, 79(17): 1866-1868; & J.J.Kleber, “Quecksilberverkonzen- tration im Urin nach DMPS” in [Status Quo and Perspectives of Amalgam], L.T. Friberg(ed.), Georg-Thieme Verlag, Stuttgart, New York, 1005, p 61-69.
(274) L.Friberg et al, “Mercury in the brain and CNS in relation to amalgam fillings”, Lakartidningen, 83(7):519-521,1986(Swedish Medical Journal);
(278) NIDR/ADA Workshop, Biocompatibility of Metals in Dentistry, JADA, 109(3): 469-471, Sept 1984. (& 38)
(279) Jenkins, Biological
Monitoring of Toxic Trace Metals, Vol 1, Biological Monitoring and
Surveillance, U.S. EPA, Sept 1980, p3; & Cernichiari
E, Brewer R, Myers GJ, Marsh DO, Berlin M,
Clarkson TW; Monitoring methyl mercury during pregnancy:
maternal hair predicts fetal brain exposure. Neurotoxicology
1995 Winter;16(4):705‑10: & M.J.Gonzalez et el, “Mercury in
human hair; residents of Madrid, Spain”, Arch Environ Health, 1985,
40(4):225-8; & D.Airey, Mercury in human hair: a
review” Environmental Health Perspectives,1983. 52:303-316; &
“Total mercury concentrations in human
hair form 13 countries”, Sci Total Environ 1983, 32(2): 157-80; &
S.A.Katz et al, “Use of hair analysis for evaluating
mercury intoxication of the human body”, J Appl Toxicol, 1992, 12(2): 79-84; & Wilhelm M; Muller F; Idel H. Biological monitoring of mercury vapor
exposure by scalp hair analysis in
comparison to blood and urine. Toxicol
Lett 1996 Nov;88(1‑3):221‑6; & Ziff, Validity of Hair Anlysis
for Diagnosis of Mercury Status, Bioprobe Newsletter,
(290) D. Echeverria et al, “Neurobehavioral effects from exposure to dental amalgam: new distinctions between recent exposure and Hg body burden” FASEB J, Aug 1998, 12(11):971-980; & Amalgam and Health, Swedish Council for Planning and Coordination of Research, 1999; p297-307.
(308) Sorensen N, Murata K, Budtz-Jorgensen E, Weihe P, Grandjean P. Prenatal methylmercury exposure as a cardiovascular risk factor at seven years of age. Epidemiology 1999 Jul;10(4):370-5;& D.O.Marsh et al, “Fetal Methyl mercury Poisoning”, Ann Neurol, 1980, 7:348-55
(335) A. Engqvist et al, “Speciation of mercury excreted in feces from individuals with amalgam fillings”, Arch Environ Health, 1998, 53(3):205-13; & Dept. of Toxicology & Chemistry, Stockholm Univ., National Institute for Working Life, 1998 (www.niwl.se/ah/1998-02.html)
(342) Stejskal VDM, Danersund A, Lindvall A, Hudecek R, Nordman V, Yaqob A et al. Metal- specific
memory lymphocytes: biomarkers of sensitivity in man. Neuroendocrinology Letters, 1999; 20: 289-98. www.melisa.org
(369)Prochazkova J, Sterzl I, Kucerova H, Bartova J, Stejskal VD; The beneficial
effect of amalgam replacement on health in patients with autoimmunity. Neuro Endocrinol Lett. 2004 Jun;25(3):211-8.
(405) Stejskal J, Stejskal V. The role of metals in autoimmune diseases and the
link to neuroendocrinology Neuroendocrinology Letters, 20:345‑358, 1999; www.melisa.org/knowledge/education14.html
(360) Buchet JP, Lauwerys RR, Influence of DMPS on the mobilization of mercury from tissues of rats pretreated with mercuric chloride, phenylmercury acetate, or mercury vapor, Toxicology 1989;54(3):323-33.
(370) Magos L, Clarkson TW, Hudson AR. The effects of dose of elemental mercury and first
pass circulation time on organ distribution of inorganic mercury in rats. Biochem Biophys Acta 1989; 991(1):85-9.
(386) Great Smokies Diagnostic Lab, research web pages (by condition) http://www.gsdl.com& Doctors Data Lab , http://www.doctorsdata.com,
inquiries @doctors data.com, www.doctorsdata.com, & MetaMetrix Lab, www.metametrix.com; &(d) Biospectron Lab, LMI, Lennart Månsson International AB, email@example.com
(427) Chetty CS, McBride V, Sands S, Rajanna B. Effects in vitro on rat brain Mg(++)-ATPase. Arch Int
Physiol Biochem 1990
(69) Olanow CW, Arendash GW. Metals and free radicals in neurodegeneration. Curr Opin Neurol 1994, 7(6):548-58; & Kasarskis EJ(MD), Metallothionein in ALS Motor Neurons(IRB #91-22026), FEDRIP DATABASE, National Technical Information Service(NTIS), ID: FEDRIP/1999/07802766
(443) Troy CM, Shelanski ML. Down-regulation of copper/zinc superoxide dismustase causes apoptotic death in PC12 neuronal cells. Proc. National Acad Sci, USA, 1994, 91(14):6384-7; & Rothstein JD, Dristol LA, Hosier B, Brown RH, Kunci RW. Chronic inhibition of superoxide dismustase produces apoptotic death of spinal neurons. Proc Nat Acad Sci, USA, 1994, 91(10):4155-9.
(503) Rupp, Paffenberger, Significance to health of mercury used in dental practice, Reports of Councils and Bureaus, JADA, Vol 182, June 1971; & Rao, Hefferen, Biocompatibility of Dental Materials, Vol III,D.C. Smith and D.F. Williams, Eds., CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fl 1982, Toxicity of Mercury; & Center for Chemical Hazard Assessment, Potential Occupational Hazards: Dentistry, Syracuse Research, Contract No.210-78-0019, 1980; & Merck Manuel, 14th Edition, p1552.
(528) Doctors Data Inc.; Fecal Elements Test; P.O.Box 111, West Chicago, Illinois, 60186-0111;
(543) U.S. Centers for Disease Control, National Center for Health Statistics, NHANES III
study(thousands of people’s health monitored), http://www.myflcv.com/NHanes3.html ; &
www.mercola.com/article/mercury/no_mercury.htm & Review: cancer related to mercury
exposure, B. Windham (Ed) www.myflcv.com/cancerhg.html ; & (b) Laks, Dan R. Assessment
of chronic mercury exposure within the U.S. population, National Health and Nutrition
Examination Survey, 1999–2006. Biometals. August 2009; & Laks, D.R. et al, Mercury has
an affinity for pituitary hormones, Medical Hypotheses, Dec 2009; & (c) An Investigation of
Factors Related to Levels of Mercury in Human Hair, Environmental Quality Institute,
October 01, 2005,
(577) Joachim Mutter et al, Alzheimer Disease: Mercury as pathogenetic factor and apolipoprotein E
as a moderator, Neuroendocrinol Lett 2004; 25(5):331–339; & Apolipoprotein E genotyping as a potential biomarker for mercury neurotoxicity. J Alzheimers Dis. 2003Jun;5(3):189-95. Godfrey ME, Wojcik DP, Krone CA; & & Amer. College of Medical Genetics Working Group on ApoE and Alzheimer’s Disease, JAMA, 1995, 274: 1627-29
(595) Great Plains Medical Lab, Testing for Toxic Metals,
(596) Review: Fetal Effects of Amalgam, B Windham(Ed), http://www.myflcv.com/fetaln.html
(597) Results of Replacement of Amalgam Fillings, B Windham(Ed), http://www.myflcv.com/hgremove.html
(598) Review: Children’s neurological conditions, B Windham(Ed), http://www.myflcv.com/kidshg.html
(599) Exposure Levels from Amalgam Fillings, Review, http://www.myflcv.com/damspr1.html
(600)Health Effects Related to Dental Amalgam, B Windham(Ed), www.myflcv.com/amalg6.html
National/technical contact: B. Windham, firstname.lastname@example.org, 850-878-9024