DENTAL AMALGAM MERCURY SYNDROME ............................www.amalgam.org
DAMS Intl. 1079 Summit Ave St Paul MN 55105
For Immediate Release: local contact: see page 6
Studies Document that amalgam dental fillings are the largest source of both inorganic and organic mercury in most people.
Peer-reviewed medical studies and thousands of clinical tests by Medical Labs have documented that:
1. The daily mercury exposure(measured in saliva and feces) for those with amalgam dental fillings is on average more than 10 times higher than those without amalgam fillings.
2. Amalgam is the largest source of mercury exposure in most people- both for inorganic and organic mercury.
3. Amalgam is also a major source of the high levels of mercury in all U.S. sewer plants, sewer sludge, and in lakes, rivers, and fish. Over 50% of Florida rivers and lakes have mercury fish consumption warnings, and most bays. Over 20% of all U.S. lakes have fish consumption warnings, including all Great Lakes.
4. Millions of people in the U.S. have dangerous levels of mercury exposure and millions of women of child bearing age have levels high enough to make birth defects and developmental disorders in infants likely.
U.S., Canadian, German, and Swedish Government agencies, along with the World Health Organization have documented that amalgam is the number one source of mercury in most people(1-4,12). Many other peer-reviewed studies and thousands of clinical tests have confirmed these results and that amalgam has affected
The reference average level of mercury in feces(dry weight) for those tested at Doctors Data Lab with amalgam fillings is .26 mg/kg, compared to the reference average level for those without amalgam fillings of .02 mg/kg(10). (13 times that of the population w/o amalgam). A Swedish lab that does fecal tests for mercury had similar results(10).
In a large study of a group with amalgams, a group without amalgams, and a group that had undergone amalgam replacement- using saliva mercury measurements, it was concluded that amalgam is the main source of organic mercury in most people. Those with amalgams on average had more than 4 times as much organic mercury as either group without amalgam. Those with amalgam had over 10 times the total mercury as those without(11). And mercury from fish was controlled for in the study and not a factor in these results. Mercury vapor and inorganic mercury are well documented to be methylated to methyl mercury in the mouth and intestines by bacteria, yeast, and other methyl donors(21,22,23).
The saliva mercury level for those with several amalgam fillings(8 or more) was more than 10 times the level of those without amalgam fillings. 10 % of those with amalgam fillings had unstimulated mercury saliva levels of over 100 ug/L. Mercury level was proportional to the number of fillings(12,11). Three studies that looked at a population with more than 12 fillings found generally higher levels than this study, with average mercury level in unstimulated saliva of 29 ug/L [33 ug/d](13), 32.7 ug/L
[37 ug/d] (14), and 75 ug/day(15). The saliva and feces of children with amalgams have approximately 10 times the level of mercury as children without (10,16,17,FS 8),
and much higher levels in saliva after chewing.
Mercury levels in saliva and feces usually decline after amalgam replacement between 80 to 95% (10,11,18-20,FS 8). The studies document that amalgam is the number one source of both inorganic and organic mercury in most people. It has been documented that inorganic mercury is methylated to methyl mercury in the mouth and intestines by bacteria, yeast, and other methyl donors(21,22,23).
Because of the extreme toxicity of mercury, the U.S. EPA drinking water standard for mercury is 2 parts per billion, which allows for not over 4 micrograms per day mercury exposure for an average adult. The U.S.EPA mercury health guideline for elemental mercury exposure(vapor) is 0.3 micrograms per cubic meter of air(0.3 ug/M3). For the average adult breathing 20 M3 of air per day, this amounts to an exposure of 6 micrograms(ug) per day. The U.S. Department of Health, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ASTDR) standard (MRL) -for acute inhalation exposure to mercury vapor is 0.2 micrograms Hg/M3, which translates to approx. 4 ug/day for the average adult(1,FS 1).
The main reasons for the high exposure levels from mercury are the high volatility of mercury(which is vaporizing constantly at room temperature) and the galvanic currents in the mouth generated by mixed metals in an electrolyte(saliva)
(FS 7). Metal crowns are usually placed over amalgam base which gives even more galvanic currents and mercury exposure than amalgam fillings. This is warned against by the largest amalgam manufacturer and many Government health agencies, along with other common practices regarding amalgam by dentists in the U.S. (FS 8) Several;
states now require warnings to patients by dentists about the toxicity of mercury(FS 10).
Studies that the Government Health Standards were based on have found adverse health effects at very low levels(FS 8,25) and developmental effects on infants and children at very low levels of exposure(FS 2,FS 5,25), along with finding that mercury vapor from a mothers fillings is readily transferred through the mothers blood across the placenta to a fetus and also through mothers milk(FS 2) and commonly causes developmental effects(FS 2,25).
All sewer plants in the U.S. and sewer sludge have been found to have high levels of mercury by Govt agencies, with mercury excretion into home and business sewers by those with amalgam fillings the most common factor along with high levels from dental office sewers(5-7,FS 9). Government agencies have documented that this is a major factor in mercury in rivers, lakes, fish, as well as crops and rain since soil bacteria methylate the mercury from sludge used for land spreading or in landfills to methyl mercury, which is emitted at high levels. Over 50% of Florida rivers and lakes have fish consumption warnings along with most bays(FS9). Over 20% of all U.S. lakes, including all Great Lakes, and 7% of U.S. river miles have mercury fish consumption warnings(8).
DAMS is currently working with thousands of people in the U.S. dealing with serious health effects caused by exposure to mercury from amalgam and urges everyone to find out more about this major problem and to get involved in resolving these health safety issues. DAMS can provide information and help to anyone who is interested or who thinks they might have health problems related to their amalgam fillings. (www.home.earthlink.net/~berniew1/indexd.html)
(1) Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry(ATSDR), U.S. Public Health Service, "Toxicological Profile for Mercury"March, 1999.
(2) Mark Richardson, Environmental Health Directorate,Health Canada, Assessment of Mercury Exposure and Risks from Dental Amalgam, 1995, Final Report; & Swedish Council for Planning and Coordination(FRN),
Amalgam and Health, 1999.
(3) World Health Organization(WHO),1991, Environmental Health criteria 118, Inorganic Mercury, WHO, Geneva;
(4) A.Kingman et al, National Institute of Dental Research, "Mercury concentrations in urine and blood associated with amalgam exposure in the U.S. military population", J Dent Res, 1998, 77(3):461‑71.
(5) U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Mercury Sourcebook: a Guide to Help Your Community Identify and Reduce Releases of Elemental Mercury. Section III, Mercury Use: Dentists, p249-292.
Http://www.epa.gov/grtlakes/bnsdocs/hgsbook/index.html & http://home.xnet.com/~aadr/thetest.htm
& (b) Association of Metropolitan Sewerage Agencies' Evaluation of Domestic Sources of Mercury :
(6) Lindberg, S.G., et al. 2001. Methylated mercury species in municipal waste landfill gas sampled in Florida, USA. Atmospheric Environment 35(Aug):4011-15.; & Lindberg, S.G. et al, Airborne Emissions of mercury from municipal solid waste: measurements from 3 Florida landfills, JAWMA, 2002 ;& Janet Raloff, Landfill gas found to have high levels of highly toxic dimethyl form of mercury. Week of July 7, 2001; Vol. 160, No. 1, Science News; & Study Says Landfill Bacteria Worsen Mercury Pollution, Solid Waste Report, Vol. 32 No. 28 July 12, 2001 Page 217. ; & U.S. EPA, Air Emissions of landfill gas pollutants at Fresh Kills Landfill, Staten Island, NJ, December 1995, NTIS Order number PB97-500508INC 04/20/2001 [www.ntis.gov/fcpc/cpn7634.htm];
(7) Methyl Mercury Contamination and Emission to the Atmosphere from Soil Amended with Municipal Sewage Sludge, Anthony Carpi, toxicology, Journal Environ. Quality 26:1650-1655 (1997) Genetic Analysis of Drinking Water www.toxicsaction.org/tacsludgereport10_30_01.pdf; & Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Press Release: ORNL finds green plants fertilized by sewer sludge emit organic and inorganic mercury, http://www.ornl.gov/Press_Releases/archive/mr19960117‑01.html; &
Maine Toxics Action Center, Toxic sludge: threatening farm lands and public health, Oct 2001.
(8)United States Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Water, Novermber 2000, The National Listing of
Fish and Wildlife Advisories: Summary of 1999 Data, EPA‑823‑F‑00‑20,
(10) Doctors Data Inc.; Fecal Elements Test; P.O.Box 111, West Chicago, Illinois, 60186-0111; www.doctorsdata.com ; & Biospectron Lab, LMI, Lennart Mansson International AB, email@example.com
(11) Leistevuo J et al, Dental amalgam fillings and the amount of organic mercury in human saliva. Caries Res 2001 May-Jun;35(3):163-6; & Sellars WA, Sellars R. Univ. Of Texas Southwestern Medical School Methyl mercury in dental amalgams in the human mouth, Journal of Nutritional & Environmental Medicine 1996; 6(1): 33-37
(12) Dr. P.Kraub & M.Deyhle, Universitat Tubingen- Institut fur Organische Chemie, "Field Study
on the Mercury Content of Saliva", 1997 www.uni-tuebingen.de/KRAUSS/amalgam.html;
(20,000 people tested for mercury level in saliva and health status/symptoms compiled)
(13) M.J.Vimy,F.L.Lorscheider,Intra oral Mercury released from dental amalgams and estimation of daily dose J. Dent Res., 1985,64(8):1069-1075;
(14) A.Gebhardt, Ermittlung der Quecksilberbelastung aus Amalgamfullurngen, Labormedizin 16,384-386,1992;
(15) B.Arnold, Eigenschaften und Einsatzgebiete des Chelatbildners:DMPS, Z.Umweltmedizin 1997,5(1):38- ; & Diagnostik un Monitorung vonSchwermetallbelastungen,I,II, ZWR,1996, 105(10): 586-569 & (11):665-; & Therapie der Schwermetallbelastung, Mineraloscope, 1996,(1):22-23.
(16) C.Malmstrom, M.Hansson, M. Nylander, Conference on Trace
Elements in Health and Disease. Stockholm May 25,1992; & C. Malmstrom
et al., "Silver amalgam: an unstable material", Swedish paper translated
in Bio-Probe Newsletter, Vol 9(1):5-6, Jan. 1993 & C.Malmstrom, "Amalgam
derived mercury in feces", Journal of Trace Elements in Experimental
Medicine, 5, (Abs 122), 1992;
(17) B.Engin-Deniz et al,"Die queckssilberkonzentration im spichel zehnjariger kinder in korrelation zur anzahl und Grobe iher amalgamfullungen", Zeitschrift fur Stomatologie,1992, 89:471-179;
(18) L.Bjorkman et al, "Mercury in Saliva and Feces after Removal of
Amalgam Fillings", Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, 1997, 144(1),
p156-62; & (b) J Dent Res 75: 38-, IADR Abstract 165, 1996.
(19)G. Sandborgh-Englund, Pharmakinetics of mercury from dental amalgam, Medical School Dissertation Dept. Of Basal Oral Sciences, Karolinska Institute,(Stockholm),1998,1-49; & G. Sandborgh-Englund et al, Mercury in biological fluids after amalgam removal. J Dental Res, 1998, 77(4): 615-24;
(20) A. Engqvist et al, "Speciation of mercury excreted in feces from individuals with amalgam fillings", Arch Environ Health, 1998, 53(3):205-13; & Dept. of Toxicology & Chemistry, Stockholm Univ., National Institute for Working Life, 1998 (www.niwl.se/ah/1998-02.html)
(21) Heintze et al,Methylation of Mercury from dental amalgam and mercuric chloride by oral Streptococci.,Scan. J. Dent. Res. 1983, 91:150-152; & L.I.Liang et al, "Mercury reactions in the human mouth with dental amalgams" Water, Air, and Soil pollution, 80:103-107; & Wang J, Liu Z; [.In vitro Study of Strepcoccus Mutans in the Plaque on the Surface of Amalgam Fillings on the Convertion of Inorganic Mercury to Organic Mercury][Article in Chinese], Shanghai Kou Qiang Yi Xue. 2000 Jun;9(2):70-2.
(22)S Yannai, I Berdicevsky, and L Duek, Transformations of inorganic mercury by Candida albicans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1991 January; 57 (1): 245247; & Choi SC, Bartha R.. Cobalamin-mediated mercury methylation by Desulfovibrio desulfuricans LS. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1993 Jan;59(1):290-5; & Pan-Hou HS, Imura N. Involvement of mercury methylation in microbial mercury detoxication. Arch Microbiol. 1982 Mar;131(2):176-7; & Zorn NE, Smith JT. A relationship between vitamin B12, folic acid, ascorbic acid, and mercury uptake and methylation. Life Sci. 1990;47(2):167-73.
(23) Ludwicki JK., Studies on the role of gastrointestinal tract contents in the methylation of inorganic mercury compounds. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol. 1989 Feb;42(2):283-8; & Rowland I, Davies M, Grasso P. Biosynthesis of methylmercury compounds by the intestinal flora of the rat. Arch Environ Health. 1977 Jan-Feb;32(1):24-8; & Rowland IR, Grasso P, Davies MJ. The methylation of mercuric chloride by human intestinal bacteria. Experientia. 1975 SEP 15;31(9):1064-5.
(24) ATSDR/EPA Priority List for 1999: Top 20 Hazardous Substances, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/99list.html ; & Apr 19,1999 Media Advisory, New MRLs for toxic substances, MRL:elemental mercury vapor/inhalation/chronic & MRL: methyl mercury/ oral/acute; & http://atsdr1.atsdr.cdc.gov:8080/97list.html.
(25) U.S. CDC, National Center for Environmental Health , National Report on Human Exposure to Environmental Chemicals, 2001, www.cdc.gov/nceh/dls/report/Highlights.htm ; & National Research Council, Toxicological Effects of Methyl mercury (2000), pp. 304‑332: Risk Characterization and Public Health Implications, Nat'l Academy Press 2000.
Available fact sheets on website with over 2000 medical study references include:
FS1. Common Mercury Exposure Levels from Amalgam Fillings High and Government Health Standards Commonly Exceeded, www.myflcv.com/amalno1.html
FS2. Transfer of Mercury from Mothers Amalgams and Breast Milk to the Fetus and Developmental Effects of Mercury on Infants, www.myflcv.com/fetaln.html
FS3. Documentation of recovery from 60,000 clinical cases of serious adverse health effects after replacement of amalgam fillings in over 30 chronic health conditions, www.flcv.com/amalg6.html
FS4. Adverse Oral Health Problems related to Amalgam Fillings, www.flcv.com/periodon.html
FS5. Effect of Mercury and Other Toxic Metal Exposure on Cognitive and Behavioral Problems
of Children- including ADD, dyslexia, juvenile delinquency, and crime,
FS6, Autoimmune conditions: CFS, FM, MS, Parkinsons, ALS, Alzheimers, Lupus, Chrons, Schleraderma: the connection to mercury immune reactivity and amalgam fillings; www.myflcv.com/damsindx.html
FS7. The battery in your mouth: oral galvanic currents and metals in the mouth, and interactions with EMF , www.myflcv.com/galv.html
FS8. Health Effects of amalgam fillings and results of replacement of amalgam filings. Over 2000 medical study references(most in Medline) documenting common high mercury exposures from amalgam, and that vapor from amalgam is the most dangerous form of mercury to the fetus, and approx. 60,000 clinical cases of amalgam replacement followed by doctors;
FS9. The environmental effects of amalgam affect everyone. High levels of mercury in sewer plants, sewer sludge, crops, rain, rivers, lakes, fish due to mercury excreted by those with amalgam. www.flcv.com/damspr2f.html
FS10. State laws requiring warnings about adverse health effects of mercury by dentists or placing restrictions on amalgam use www.myflcv.com/damspr5.html
National contact person: Bernie Windham firstname.lastname@example.org 850-878-9024