Health Effects of Pesticide Exposure, Review - B. Windham -2010
Insecticides kill insect pests through their neurotoxic effects, but also have neurotoxic, immunotoxic, developmental, and reproductive effects on humans, other animals/pets, fish, and beneficial insects. These effects are either acute or chronic, with the acute effects being the most obvious and best documented. The 3 most common types of insecticides are organophosphates, carbamates, and pyrethrins/pyrethroids. The mode of action of carbamate insecticides is very similar to that of the organophosphate insecticides as they inhibit cholinesterase enzymes. However, they differ in action from the organophosphate compounds in that the inhibitory effect on cholinesterase is brief. Organophosphate insecticides can accumulate and be long lasting in the environment or in humans, having long term chronic as well as acute effects. Carbamates are mostly contact poisons, having mostly short-term effects, but chronic exposure can lead to chronic conditions in susceptible individuals. The fetus, infants, elderly, people with chronic conditions or genetic susceptibility, and people with other toxic exposures are the most susceptible to pesticide effects.
Pyrethrins are natural compounds from chrysanthemum plant, and are also contact poisons, but since they often donít have lethal effects on insects other insecticides so substances may be added to increase their lethal effect on insects. Inhaling high levels of pyrethrum may bring about asthmatic breathing, sneezing, nasal stuffiness, headache, nausea, incoordination, tremors, convulsions, facial flushing and swelling, and burning and itching sensations- depending on the susceptibility and health status of the individual. Children, elderly, and individuals with chronic immune or neurological conditions are the most effected. Pyrethroid insecticides are synthetic compounds designed to paralyze or kill insects. Pyrethroids are usually combined with piperonyl butoxide, a known inhibitor of key microsomal oxidase enzymes, which adds to their lethality to insects. Piperonyl butoxide is a potent cytochrome P450 and non-specific esterase inhibitor, and most pesticide mixtures have acute and chronic effects on humans.
Reviews of Health Effects of Pesticides
1. Health Effects of Pesticides www.myflcv.com/pesticHE.html
2. Health Effects of Pyrethroid Insecticides www.myflcv.com/PyrethrR.html
†††† 3. ADHD and Developmental Effects of Pesticides www.myflcv.com/PestADHD.html
4. Neurological Effects of Pyrethroid Pesticides (Parkinsonís, Alzheimerís, Lou Gehrigís Disease (ALS), ADHD, etc.) www.myflcv.com/PyrNeuro.html
5. Pyrethroid Insecticide Effects on Bees and Beneficial Insects, www.myflcv.com/pyretbee.html
6. Pyethroid Insecticide Effects on Fish and Aquatic Organisms10.† www.myflcv.com/PyreFish.html
7. Pyrethroid Insecticide Effects on Cats www.myflcv.com/PyretCat.html
8. Autoimmune (Lupus, Scleroderma,Rheumatoid Arthritis) Effects of Pesticides www.myflcv.com/pestAI.html
9. Effects of Anvil Insecticide: www.myflcv.com/anviltox.html
10. GMO Corn Health Effects��� www.myflcv.com/gmocornE.html