Health Effects of Pesticide Exposure, Review -     B. Windham -2020

Insecticides kill insect pests through their neurotoxic effects, but also have neurotoxic,  immunotoxic , developmental, and reproductive  effects on humans , other  animals/pets fish , and  beneficial insects These effects are either acute or chronic, with the acute effects being the most obvious and best documented. The 3 most common types of insecticides are organophosphates, carbamates, and  pyrethrins /pyrethroids.   The mode of action of carbamate insecticides is very similar to that of the organophosphate insecticides as they inhibit cholinesterase enzymes.  However, they differ in action from the organophosphate compounds in that the inhibitory effect on cholinesterase is brief. Organophosphate insecticides can accumulate and be long lasting in the environment or in humans, having long term chronic as well as acute effects.  Carbamates are mostly contact poisons, having mostly short-term effects, but chronic exposure can lead to chronic conditions in susceptible individuals. The fetus, infants, elderly, people with chronic conditions or genetic susceptibility, and people with other toxic exposures are the most susceptible to pesticide effects. 


Pyrethrins  are natural compounds from  chrysanthemum plant, and are also contact poisons, but since they often donít have lethal effects on  insects  other insecticides so substances may be added to increase their lethal effect on insects.  Inhaling high levels of pyrethrum may bring about asthmatic breathing, sneezing, nasal stuffiness, headache, nausea, incoordination, tremors, convulsions, facial flushing and swelling, and burning and itching sensations- depending on the susceptibility and health status of the individual. Children, elderly, and individuals with chronic immune or neurological conditions are the most effected.    Pyrethroid  insecticides are synthetic compounds designed to paralyze or kill insects.  Pyrethroids are usually combined with  piperonyl  butoxide , a known inhibitor of key microsomal oxidase  enzymes , which adds to their lethality to insects.   Piperonyl  butoxide is a potent  cytochrome P450  and non-specific esterase inhibitor, and most pesticide mixtures have acute and chronic effects on humans. 


Reviews of Health Effects of Pesticides

1.         Health Effects of Pesticides   

2.         Health Effects of Pyrethroid Insecticides

  3.         ADHD and Developmental Effects of Pesticides 

4.         Neurological Effects of Pyrethroid Pesticides ( Parkinson�s , Alzheimer �s, Lou Gehrig Disease (ALS), ADHD, etc.)     

5.         Pyrethroid Insecticide Effects on Bees and Beneficial Insects,  

6.         Pyethroid  Insecticide Effects on Fish and Aquatic Organisms ,

7.         Pyrethroid Insecticide Effects on Cats 

8.         Autoimmune (Lupus,  Scleroderma,Rheumatoid  Arthritis) Effects of Pesticides   

9.        Neurological and Developmental Effects of Pesticides

10. GMO Corn Health Effects/ Glyposate

 11. Effects of Anvil Insecticide