Fluoride Toxicity Documentation


Fluorine as a factor in premature aging]   [Article in Polish] Ann Acad Med Stetin. 2004;50 Suppl 1:9-13        Machoy-Mokrzyńska A.                                                        Katedra Farmakologii, Pomorskiej Akademii Medycznej w Szczecinie, al. Powstańców Wlkp. 72, 70-111 Szczecin.

The use of fluorine compounds in various areas of medicine, particularly in dentistry, as well as in agriculture and industry became very popular in the second half of the 20th century. Fluorine owed this widespread acceptance to observations that its compounds stimulate ossification processes and reduce the prevalence of caries. Unfortunately, growing expectations overshadowed the truth regarding interactions of fluoride on the molecular level. The fact was often ignored that fluoride is toxic, even though laboratory data stood for a careful approach to the benefits of usage. Excessive exposure to fluoride may lead to acute poisoning, hyperemia, cerebral edema, and degeneration of the liver and kidneys. Acute intoxication through the airways produces coughing, choking, and chills, followed by fever and pulmonary edema. Concentrated solutions of fluorine compounds produce difficult to heal necrotic lesions. In spite of these dramatic symptoms, acute intoxications are relatively rare; the more common finding is chronic intoxication attributable to the universal presence of fluorine compounds in the environment. The first noticeable signs of excessive exposure to fluoride in contaminated water, air, and food products include discolorations of the enamel. Dental fluorosis during tooth growth and loss of dentition in adulthood are two consequences of chronic intoxication with fluorine compounds. Abnormalities in mineralization processes affect by and large the osteoarticular system and are associated with changes in the density and structure of the bone presenting as irregular mineralization of the osteoid. Fluorine compounds also act on the organic part of supporting tissues, including collagen and other proteins, and on cells of the connective tissue. These interactions reduce the content of collagen proteins, modify the structure and regularity of collagen fibers, and induce mineralization of collagen. Interactions with cells produce transient activation of osteoblasts, stimulate fibroblasts to produce collagenase, and trigger toxic reactions in osteocytes and chondrocytes of trabecular bone. Growing deformations of the skeleton reduce mobility and result in permanent crippling of the patient. Fluoride increases the mass of non-collagen proteins such as proteoglycans and glucosaminoglycans, accelerating skin aging even though protein biosynthesis is generally suppressed. The final outcome includes progressive vascular lesions and disorders of energy metabolism in muscles. In conclusions, the use of fluoride, particularly by dentists and pediatricians, must be controlled and adapted to individual needs. It is worth remembering that fluoride: is the cause of disability due to bone deformations and abnormalities in the musculoskeletal system; reduces the incidence of caries but do not protect against tooth loss; exerts an adverse effect of metabolic processes in the skin; accelerates calcification of vessels and thus reduces their elasticity; inhibits bioenergetic reactions, in particular oxidative phosphorylation, reducing physical activity of muscles. These findings suggest that fluorine may be yet another factor in accelerated aging and revive the dispute started more than two and half thousand years ago whether aging is a physiologic or pathologic process. The understanding of factors modifying the process of aging is the basis for preventive measures aimed at extending life and maintaining full psychosocial activity.


Association of silicofluoride treated water with elevated blood lead.   Neurotoxicology. 2000 Dec;21(6):1091-100; Masters RD, Coplan MJ, Hone BT, Dykes JE.

Foundation for Neuroscience and Society, Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH 03755-3547, USA. roger.d.masters@dartmouth.edu

Previous epidemiological studies have associated silicofluoride-treated community water with enhanced child blood lead parameters. Chronic, low-level dosage of silicofluoride (SiF) has never been adequately tested for health effects in humans. We report here on a statistical study of 151,225 venous blood lead (VBL) tests taken from children ages 0-6 inclusive, living in 105 communities of populations from 15,000 to 75,000. The tests are part of a sample collected by the New York State Department of Children's Health, mostly from 1994-1998. Community fluoridation status was determined from the CDC 1992 Fluoridation Census. Covariates were assigned to each community using the 1990 U.S. Census. Blood lead measures were divided into groups based on race and age. Logistic regressions were carried out for each race/age group, as well as above and below the median of 7 covariates to test the relationship between known risk factors for lead uptake, exposure to SiF-treated water, and VBL >10 microg/dL. RESULTS: For every age/race group, there was a consistently significant association of SiF treated community water and elevated blood lead. Logistic regressions above and below the median value of seven covariates show an effect of silicofluoride on blood lead independent of those covariates. The highest likelihood of children having VBL> 10 microg/dL occurs when they are both exposed to SiF treated water and likely to be subject to another risk factor known to be associated with high blood lead (e.g., old housing). Results are consistent with prior analyses of surveys of children's blood lead in Massachusetts and NHANES III. These data contradict the null hypothesis that there is no difference between the toxic effects of SiF and sodium fluoride, pointing to the need for chemical studies and comprehensive animal testing of water treated with commercial grade silicofluorides.



Mar 23, 2006, 14:31

http://www.foodconsumer.org/777/8/National_Academy_urges_lowering_fluoride_in_ta p_water.shtml


An independent panel of experts commissioned by the US Environmental Protection Agency reviewed the effect of fluoride in drinking water on public health and released a report Wednesday saying that the fluoride level in tap water allowed by the EPA should be lowered to protect severe enamel fluorosis, clinical state II skeletal fluorosis, and bone fractures.


Ingestion of high levels of fluoride can cause a series of health problems, which have been known by many including American Dental Association for a few decades. The committee reviewed the fluoride's effect on many health conditions including dental fluorosis, skeletal fluorosis, bone fractures, damages to the brains, bone cancer and others. The effect of over-exposure to fluoride on dental fluorosis is particularly striking. Several new studies presented at the American Association for Dental Research's annual meeting held on March 8, 2006, in Orlando, Florida re-confirmed the risk of fluoride to the dental health, according to the New York State Coalition Opposed to Fluoridation (NYSCOF).

Over-exposure to fluoride can also damage the brain, particularly in children. The report cites that a few Chinese epidemiological studies have linked exposure to fluoride at 2.5 to 4 mg/L in drinking water to IQ deficits in children.


0108 Effects of Fluoride on Cultured Human Ameloblast-Lineage Cells

Q. YAN, Y. ZHANG, W. LI, and P. DENBESTEN, University of California - San Francisco, USA

Fluorosed enamel, caused by excessive exposure to fluoride during enamel formation, is hypomineralized. The mechanisms responsible for the formation of fluorosed enamel remain poorly defined. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine whether fluoride (F), at micromolar levels can affect gene expression and apoptosis in human ameloblast-lineage cells in vitro . METHODS: Embryonic primary human ameloblast lineage cells were cultured for 72 hours with KGM-2. The cells were synchronized in media without growth factors for 20 hours, and grown with either 0, 10, or 20µM F for 48 hours. The apoptotic cell population was determined by a dural staining flow cytometric assay. Ameloblast-lineage cells were then separated into 3 groups according to their calcification initiation time: incisors, canines and first molars, and second molars. Cells were synchronized by removing growth factors and then exposed to 0 or 10µM F for 24 hours. The effect of 10µM F on the expression of DSPP and TNFα was further analyzed by real-time PCR. RESULTS: Flow cytometric assay showed that both 10µM and 20µM F significantly increased the apoptotic index of the cultured ameloblast-lineage P1 cells. Quantitative PCR showed a variable response to F relative to the stage of enamel formation. F significantly upregulated TNFα mRNA expression in cells isolated from 20wk second molars (least mature enamel), with no effect on the other two groups. DSPP mRNA was significantly down regulated in ameloblast-lineage cells from all groups isolated from 20wk fetal jaws. CONCLUSIONS: Micromolar levels of fluoride can alter early forming ameloblast lineage cells by enhancing apoptosis and altering mRNA expression. These studies indicate a specific effect of fluoride on cell signaling that yet remains to be determined.

Supported by a Lee Hysan fellowship to Q Yan and NIH NIDCR R01 DE013508 to PDB.

US Government Agencies Say Fluoride in Drinking Water Increases Toxicity of Aluminum                http://www.mercola.com/2001/may/16/fluoride.htm





In the March 2001 issue of the journal Neuro Toxicology, a team of researchers led by Dr. Roger Masters of Dartmouth College reported evidence that public drinking water fluoridated with fluorosilicic acid is linked to higher levels of lead in children. Researchers concluded that the fluorosilicic acid-treated water was equal to or worse a contributor of blood-lead levels as old house paint.


Fluoride: A Statement of Concern,  by Paul Connett, PhD


Fluoride water 'causes cancer'
Boys at risk from bone tumours, research by Harvard School of Dental Research reveals

Bob Woffinden   Sunday June 12, 2005  The Observer 


Dentists Demand End to ‘Cancer Risk’ Fluoride in Water

By Treacy Hogan  Environment Correspondent    Irish Independent  
Tuesday 14 June 2005

Most European countries have rejected or ceased use of fluoride in water


The fluoride chemical added to water is an unprocessed, industrial waste-product from the pollution scrubbers of the phosphate fertilizer industry.  It contains toxic metals such as arsenic, cadmium, mercury, and lead that are known to be carcinogenic and neurotoxic.



Fluoride is extremely toxic and causes adverse health effects

Fluoride commonly causes tooth problems and brittle teeth and bones

Fluoride Toxicity Documentation



EPA unions call for moratorium on fluoride in drinking water

By MATTHEW DALY Associated Press Writer, Thursday, September 1, 2005

US Environmental Protection Agency reveals that tens of millions of Americans may be at risk from fluoridated drinking water

WASHINGTON (AP) — Eleven unions representing more than 7,000 workers at the Environmental Protection Agency are calling for a national moratorium on programs to add fluoride to drinking water, citing what they call a possible cancer risk and adverse health effects           http://www.fluoridealert.org/hp-epa.htm http://www.fosters.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20050901/NEWS0103/109010031 http://home.att.net/~gtigerclaw/EPAresponse.html                            http://www.nofluoride.com/

ELECTION 2005: 5 More US Communities Reject Fluoridation

Over 70 U.S. communities have rejected fluoridation since 1999

Water Fluoridation "Obsolete" According to Nobel Prize Scientist  Nations who still practice it "should feel ashamed of themselves"

Dr. Avid Carlsson, Pharmacologist, Nobel Laureat in Medicine/Physiology


Dentists Demand End to ‘Cancer Risk’ Fluoride in Water

By Treacy Hogan  Environment Correspondent    Irish Independent  
Tuesday 14 June 2005

Most European countries have rejected or ceased use of fluoride in water


The fluoride chemical added to water is an unprocessed, industrial waste-product from the pollution scrubbers of the phosphate fertilizer industry.  It contains toxic metals such as arsenic, cadmium, mercury, and lead that are known to be carcinogenic and neurotoxic.



Fluoride is extremely toxic and causes adverse health effects

Fluoride commonly causes tooth problems and brittle teeth and bones

US Government Agencies Say Fluoride in Drinking Water Increases Toxicity of Aluminum



Silicofluorides & Higher Blood Lead,  Professor Roger D. Masters, Dartmouth College, Research Professor of Government & Nelson A. Rockefeller Professor Emeritus  & President, Foundation for Neuroscience & Society, 2001.                                     www.fluoridealert.org/sf-masters.htm

We have compared children's blood lead levels in communities using SiF treated water with communities using sodium fluoride or with non-fluoridated water. In three separate samples, totaling over 400,000 children, SiF treated municipal water is ALWAYS significantly associated with increased blood lead levels in children.

This effect was evident in a Massachusetts survey of lead levels in 280,000 children (see graph for children exposed to SiF from the Greater Boston water system, from towns that add SiF locally, or from communities using sodium fluoride, and towns without fluoridation). For the state of New York, data was available on venous blood lead levels for 151,225 children in communities of 15,000 to 75,000. Controlling for other factors associated with higher blood lead, silicofluorides were again significantly associated with higher uptake of lead from the environment. For black children, who are especially at risk for high blood lead, those in towns using SiF were less likely to have low blood lead and more likely to have lead over 10µg/dL. To confirm that these results are not due to other socio-economic or demographic factors, additional statistical tests were run.

The third study concerned children's blood lead levels in the National Health and Nutrition Evaluation Survey (NHANES III), which had reports for 7224 children from 80 counties with populations over 500,000. Since only 4 of these counties had any communities that used sodium fluoride, analysis of the NHANES III data focused on the percentage of the entire county population exposed to silicofluoride treated water.

Among the 1543 children of all ages from large urban counties with over 80% of the population exposed to fluoridation (almost all of whom receive water treated with SiF), average blood lead was 5.12 µg/dL whereas the average for 1139 children in low fluoride exposure counties was 3.64 µg/dL Blood lead in the 473 children sampled from the medium fluoridation counties was 3.23 µg/dL, which was significantly different from the high fluoridation counties but not from either low fluoridation counties or those with unknown fluoridation status, where average blood lead levels were 3.16 µg/dL (S.D. 2.83). Controlling for the Poverty, the effect of SiF use was highly significant (p < .0001). When the sample is divided by age and race, these findings provide six separate samples in which SiF is associated with high blood lead (see Graphs).

In all three populations studied, those children in each racial category and each age group who were highly likely to be exposed to silicofluorides differ strongly in levels of blood lead from those not exposed. This conclusion was further checked by analyzing available data for health and behavioral traits that have been associated with high blood lead (such as violent crimes, cocaine use and asthma). In each case, those exposed to silicofluoride treated water were more likely to have behavioral or health problems that are more likely among those with high lead in their bodies.

The injection of silicofluorides in public water supplies is a practice whose elimination could possibly contribute to reduced rates of learning disabilities, substance abuse, violent crime, and asthma (all connected with lead poisoning and other toxins). Whatever the benefits to teeth (and this is highly controversial), our research shows that the issues facing the public concern silicofluoride chemistry, toxicology, and the linkage of neurotoxins with behavior or health. Before SiF chemicals are used, citizens must know that they are safe for all.

For more information, see: http://www.dartmouth.edu/~rmasters/ahabs.htm.




Fluoride/aluminum- 80% death rate in rats!  Implications for Alzheimer’s.

    Posted by: "Elizabeth Sinkey" westoo@sbcglobal.net elizabeth_sinkey

    Date: Sun Aug 5, 2007 11:31 am ((PDT))



  George Glasser



  "In l999, EPA convened a group of experts to carefully consider the results

of the Varner et al. (1998) study," USEPA spokesman, Charles Fox wrote in a

September 5, 2000 letter to US Congressman Ken Calvert, Chairman, House Subcommittee on Energy and the Environment. Fox continued, "As a result of that conference,EPA has requested that the National Toxicology Program consider the possibility of conducting additional studies of the neurotoxicity of aluminum that include verification of the results observed in the Varner et al. Study."

  Fox carefully avoided mentioning the fact that the reviewed study he cited was replicated in two previous studies by Dr. Julie Varner. All three studies found that aluminum-fluoride interactions are associated with brain and kidney damage in laboratory animals. Aside from brain and kidney damage, there was an 80% mortality rate in the animals fed doses of sodium fluoride and aluminum similar to those found in artificially fluoridated drinking water.

  Alum (aluminum sulfate) is most frequently used by water companies to improve

the appearance of drinking water, to make it clear. For many years, aluminum has been known to be neurotoxic to humans and animals.

  The original Varner, et al, study published in Neuroprotective Agents, 1997, was designed to determine whether aluminum and fluoride (aluminum fluoride) in drinking water play a role in age-related neurological damage similar to Alzheimer’s disease.

It was the first scientific study to deal with fluoride/aluminum interaction.

  The researchers considered that fluoride and aluminum could combine in the stomach and be more readily transported to the brain. The combination, they believed, could enhance neurological damage and cause conditions such as presenile dementia or Alzheimer’s like dementia (ALD). During the first experiment, the researchers had noted and were perplexed by the alarmingly high death rate in the group of animals receiving aluminum and fluoride in their drinking water (80% of the animals in the low-dose group died before completion of the experiment).

  They also noted that the amounts of aluminum and fluoride fed to the animals was about the same as the amounts people are exposed to in artificially fluoridated public water supplies. The reasons for the high number of animal deaths is still unexplained as was the fact that the greatest number of mental impairments appeared in the low-dose group of animals.

  It was also observed that the animals who drank the aluminum/fluoride-laced water developed sparse hair and abnormal, copper-colored underlying skin which is related to premature aging. Researchers said that most often this condition is the result of several diseases including chronic kidney failure. Further autopsy results showed serious kidney abnormalities in animals that drank water containing both sodium fluoride and aluminum fluoride.

  The Varner team said that, "Striking parallels were seen between aluminum-induced alterations" in cerebral blood vessels that are associated with Alzheimer’s disease and other forms of presenile dementia. They concluded that the alterations of the blood vessels may be a primary event triggering neuro-degenerative diseases.

  Astounded, the researchers went on to say: "Not only did the rats in the

lowest dose groups die more often during the experiment, they looked poorly well before their deaths. Even the rats in the lowest dose group that managed to survive the 45 weeks looked to be in poor health."

  Subsequently, the researchers reported that the results of the "THIRD"

animal study confirmed the findings of the previous studies. This red flag alarmed the USEPA panel of experts because the same physical and neurological damage can also be occurring in humans in areas where both aluminum sulfate and fluorides are added to the public drinking water.

  Based on the conclusions drawn from the third Varner study, the USEPA experts

requested further research be commissioned by the National Toxicology Program. In spite of the disturbing Varner team revelations it will take two to three years for the National Toxicology to review the request.

  Almost 60% of the United States is fluoridated, and the odds of an American developing some form of dementia by the age of 65 is estimated at 1 in every 10 people, and at the age of 85, the odds are 3 in every 10 people.

  In the United Kingdom, which is 10% fluoridated, 7% of the population over 65

years will develop some form of dementia.

  Recent USEPA concerns over arsenic, a Group 1 (a) carcinogen, caused the government-contracted water treatment chemical certification laboratory, National Sanitation Foundation International, to say that there will be "increased product failures" due to high arsenic levels in fluorosilicic acid. USEPA has asked the US Government to dramatically reduce arsenic levels in drinking water from 50 parts per billion to 5 parts per billion. The EPA is keen to change the regulations because arsenic in known to cause a wide range of cancers in humans.

  More recently, the primary component of fluorosilicic acid and sodium fluorosilicate - silicon - has also been discovered in the brain plaque of Alzheimer’s and Alzheimer’s-like dementia (ALD) victims. Silica has also been found in the brain tissue of people with primary brain tumors, which is considered a terminal condition. Although aware of these new developments, no responsible government agency including the USEPA is likely to request that any research be done with the actual toxic waste "product" used to fluoridate public drinking water due to political pressure.



  Fluoride, a major pollutant in phosphate mining and also used in water fluoridation, is documented to be an extremely problematic pollutant: known to be carcinogenic and highly toxic and to have caused large numbers of adverse health effects


Fluoride Pollution: An Overview   


Fluoride is more acutely toxic than lead http://www.fluoridealert.org/health/accidents/f-lead.html

Fluoride water 'causes cancer' http://observer.guardian.co.uk/uk_news/story/0,6903,1504672,00.html





Why EPA's Headquarters Professionals' Union Opposes Fluoridation


Suppression of Scientific Dissent on Fluoride's Risks and Benefits http://www.fluoridealert.org/suppression.htm

Research links low levels of fluoride and aluminum to Alzheimer's and kidney damage

Alzheimer's in America: The Aluminum-Phosphate Fertilizer Connection,






J A Varner, K F Jensen, W Horvath and R L Isaacson, Binghamton,   New York, and Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, USA, CHRONIC ADMINISTRATION OF ALUMINUM-FLUORIDE OR SODIUM-FLUORIDE TO RATS IN DRINKING WATER: ALTERATIONS IN NEURONAL AND CEREBROVASCULAR INTEGRITY, Abstracted from Brain Research 784 284-298 1998  http://www.fluoride-journal.com/98-31-2/31291-95.htm .


Dr. Mercola’s Health Letter  http://www.mercola.com/article/links/fluoride_links.htm

Lead researcher Dr. C.D. Anuradha, in comments to the Optimal Wellness Center, explains that "fluoride in general is harmful to any type of cell. We have seen that fluoride causes cell death in non-cancerous cells, through a mechanism known as "necrosis".   Necrosis,  is an externally influenced death, which occurs through some type of local injury (as loss of blood supply, corrosion, burning, or the local lesion of a disease).  Studies on fluoride usually use the simplist and least toxic form, sodium fluoride.

However the type of fluoride found in phosphate ore is different and appears to be even more toxic.   one of the silicofluorides (either fluosilicic acid or sodium silicofluoride).

However, these chemicals have been shown to act much differently from the much simpler sodium fluoride. In one study, it was shown that these chemicals enhance the cellular uptake of lead (http://www.fluoride-journal.com/98-31-3/313-s25.htm).


50 Reasons to Oppose Fluoridation

By Paul Connett, PhD

1. Fluoride is not an essential nutrient. No disease has ever been linked to a fluoride deficiency. Humans can have perfectly good teeth without fluoride.

2. Fluoridation is not necessary. Most Western European countries are not fluoridated and have experienced the same decline in dental decay as the

3. Fluoridation's role in the decline of tooth decay is in serious doubt…In a review commissioned by the
Ontario government, Dr. David Locker concluded: "The magnitude of [fluoridation's] effect is not large in absolute terms, is often not statistically significant and may not be of clinical significance".

4. Where fluoridation has been discontinued in communities from
Canada, the former East Germany, Cuba and Finland, dental decay has not increased but has actually decreased.

5. There have been numerous recent reports of dental crises in US cities (e.g.
Boston, Cincinnati, New York City) which have been fluoridated for over 20 years. There appears to be a far greater (inverse) relationship between tooth decay and income level than with water fluoride levels.

6. Modern research shows that decay rates were coming down before fluoridation was introduced and have continued to decline even after its benefits would have been maximized. Many other factors influence tooth decay. Some recent studies have found that tooth decay actually increases as the fluoride concentration in the water increases

7. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has now acknowledged the findings of many leading dental researchers, that the mechanism of fluoride's benefits are mainly TOPICAL not SYSTEMIC. Thus, you don't have to swallow fluoride to protect teeth. As the benefits of fluoride (if any exist) are topical, and the risks are systemic, it makes more sense, for those who want to take the risks, to deliver the fluoride directly to the tooth in the form of toothpaste. Since swallowing fluoride is unnecessary, there is no reason to force people (against their will) to drink fluoride in their water supply. This position was recently shared by Dr. Douglas Carnall, the associate editor of the British Medical Journal.

8. Despite being prescribed by doctors for over 50 years, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has never approved any fluoride product designed for ingestion as safe or effective.

9. The US fluoridation program has massively failed to achieve one of its key objectives, i.e. to lower dental decay rates while holding down dental fluorosis (mottled and discolored enamel), a condition known to be caused by fluoride….

10. Dental fluorosis means that a child has been overdosed on fluoride. While the mechanism by which the enamel is damaged is not definitively known, it appears fluorosis may be a result of either inhibited enzymes in the growing teeth, or through fluoride's interference with G-protein signaling mechanisms. In a study in
Mexico, Alarcon-Herrera (2001) has shown a linear correlation between the severity of dental fluorosis and the frequency of bone fractures in children.

11. The level of fluoride put into water (1 ppm) is up to 200 times higher than normally found in mothers' milk (0.005 – 0.01 ppm). There are no benefits, only risks, for infants ingesting this heightened level of fluoride at such an early age (this is an age where susceptibility to environmental toxins is particularly high).

12. Fluoride is a cumulative poison. On average, only 50% of the fluoride we ingest each day is excreted through the kidneys. The remainder accumulates in our bones, pineal gland, and other tissues. If the kidney is damaged, fluoride accumulation will increase, and with it, the likelihood of harm.

13. Fluoride is very biologically active even at low concentrations. It interferes with hydrogen bonding and inhibits numerous enzymes.

14. When complexed with aluminum, fluoride interferes with G-proteins. Such interactions give aluminum-fluoride complexes the potential to interfere with many hormonal and some neurochemical signals.

15. Fluoride has been shown to be mutagenic, cause chromosome damage and interfere with the enzymes involved with
DNA repair in a variety of cell and tissue studies. Recent studies have also found a correlation between fluoride exposure and chromosome damage in humans.

16. Fluoride forms complexes with a large number of metal ions, which include metals which are needed in the body (like calcium and magnesium) and metals (like lead and aluminum) which are toxic to the body. This can cause a variety of problems. For example, fluoride interferes with enzymes where magnesium is an important co-factor, and it can help facilitate the uptake of aluminum and lead into tissues where these metals wouldn't otherwise go.

17. Rats fed for one year with 1 ppm fluoride in their water, using either sodium fluoride or aluminum fluoride, had morphological changes to their kidneys and brains, an increased uptake of aluminum in the brain, and the formation of beta amyloid deposits which are characteristic of Alzheimers disease.

18. Aluminum fluoride was recently nominated by the Environmental Protection Agency and National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences for testing by the National Toxicology Program. According to EPA and NIEHS, aluminum fluoride currently has a "high health research priority" due to its "known neurotoxicity". If fluoride is added to water which contains aluminum, than aluminum fluoride complexes will form.

19. Animal experiments show that fluoride accumulates in the brain and exposure alters mental behavior in a manner consistent with a neurotoxic agent. Rats dosed prenatally demonstrated hyperactive behavior. Those dosed postnatally demonstrated hypoactivity (i.e. under activity or "couch potato" syndrome). More recent animal experiments have reported that fluoride can damage the brain and impact learning and behavior.

20. Five studies from
China show a lowering of IQ in children associated with fluoride exposure. One of these studies indicates that even just moderate levels of fluoride exposure (e.g. 0.9 ppm in the water) can exacerbate the neurological defects of iodine deficiency.

21. Studies by Jennifer Luke showed that fluoride accumulates in the human pineal gland to very high levels. In her Ph.D. thesis Luke has also shown in animal studies that fluoride reduces melatonin production and leads to an earlier onset of puberty.

22. In the first half of the 20th century, fluoride was prescribed by a number of European doctors to reduce the activity of the thyroid gland for those suffering from hyperthyroidism (over active thyroid). With water fluoridation, we are forcing people to drink a thyroid-depressing medication which could, in turn, serve to promote higher levels of hypothyroidism (underactive thyroid) in the population, and all the subsequent problems related to this disorder. Such problems include depression, fatigue, weight gain, muscle and joint pains, increased cholesterol levels, and heart disease. It bears noting that according to the Department of Health and Human Services (1991) fluoride exposure in fluoridated communities is estimated to range from 1.6 to 6.6 mg/day, which is a range that actually overlaps the dose (2.3 - 4.5 mg/day) shown to decrease the functioning of the human thyroid. This is a remarkable fact, particularly considering the rampant and increasing problem of hypothyroidism in the
United States. …In Russia, Bachinskii found a lowering of thyroid function, among otherwise healthy people, at 2.3 ppm fluoride in water.

23. Some of the early symptoms of skeletal fluorosis, a fluoride-induced bone and joint disease that impacts millions of people in
India, China, and Africa , mimic the symptoms of arthritis. According to a review on fluoridation by Chemical & Engineering News, "Because some of the clinical symptoms mimic arthritis, the first two clinical phases of skeletal fluorosis could be easily misdiagnosed". Few if any studies have been done to determine the extent of this misdiagnosis, and whether the high prevalence of arthritis in America (1 in 3 Americans have some form of arthritis…

24. In some studies, when high doses of fluoride (average 26 mg per day) were used in trials to treat patients with osteoporosis in an effort to harden their bones and reduce fracture rates, it actually led to a HIGHER number of fractures, particularly hip fractures. The cumulative doses used in these trials are exceeded by the lifetime cumulative doses being experienced by many people living in fluoridated communities.

25. Nineteen studies (three unpublished, including one abstract) since 1990 have examined the possible relationship of fluoride in water and hip fracture among the elderly. Eleven of these studies found an association, eight did not. One study found a dose-related increase in hip fracture as the concentration of fluoride rose from 1 ppm to 8 ppm. Hip fracture is a very serious issue for the elderly, as a quarter of those who have a hip fracture die within a year of the operation, while 50 percent never regain an independent existence….

26. The only government-sanctioned animal study to investigate if fluoride causes cancer, found a dose-dependent increase in cancer in the target organ (bone) of the fluoride-treated (male) rats. The initial review of this study also reported an increase in liver and oral cancers, however, all non-bone cancers were later downgraded – with a questionable rationale - by a government-review panel. In light of the importance of this study, EPA Professional Headquarters Union has requested that Congress establish an independent review to examine the study's results.

27. A review of national cancer data in the
US by the National Cancer Institute (NCI) revealed a significantly higher rate of bone cancer in young men in fluoridated versus unfluoridated areas. While the NCI concluded that fluoridation was not the cause, no explanation was provided to explain the higher rates in the fluoridated areas. A smaller study from New Jersey found bone cancer rates to be up to 6 times higher in young men living in fluoridated versus unfluoridated areas. Other epidemiological studies have failed to find this relationship.

28. Fluoride administered to animals at high doses wreaks havoc on the male reproductive system - it damages sperm and increases the rate of infertility in a number of different species. While studies conducted at the FDA have failed to find reproductive effects in rats, an epidemiological study from the
US has found increased rates of infertility among couples living in areas with 3 or more ppm fluoride in the water, and 2 studies have found a reduced level of circulating testosterone in males living in high fluoride areas.

29. The fluoridation program has been very poorly monitored. There has never been a comprehensive analysis of the fluoride levels in the bones, blood, or urine of the American people or the citizens of other fluoridated countries. Based on the sparse data that has become available, however, it is increasingly evident that some people in the population – particularly people with kidney disease - are accumulating fluoride levels that have been associated with harm to both animals and humans, particularly harm to bone.

30. Once fluoride is put in the water it is impossible to control the dose each individual receives. This is because 1) some people (e.g. manual laborers, athletes, diabetics, and people with kidney disease) drink more water than others, and 2) we receive fluoride from sources other than the water supply. Other sources of fluoride include food and beverages processed with fluoridated water, fluoridated dental products, mechanically deboned meat, teas, and pesticide residues on food.

31. Fluoridation is unethical because individuals are not being asked for their informed consent prior to medication….

32. While referenda are preferential to imposed policies from central government, it still leaves the problem of individual rights versus majority rule. Put another way -- does a voter have the right to require that their neighbor ingest a certain medication (even if it's against that neighbor's will)?

33. Some individuals appear to be highly sensitive to fluoride as shown by case studies and double blind studies. In one study, which lasted 13 years, Feltman and Kosel (1961) showed that about 1% of patients given 1 mg of fluoride each day developed negative reactions. Can we as a society force these people to ingest fluoride?

34. According to the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR 1993), and other researchers, certain subsets of the population may be particularly vulnerable to fluoride's toxic effects; these include: the elderly, diabetics and people with poor kidney function. Again, can we in good conscience force these people to ingest fluoride on a daily basis for their entire lives?

35. Also vulnerable are those who suffer from malnutrition (e.g. calcium, magnesium, vitamin C, vitamin D and iodide deficiencies and protein poor diets). Those most likely to suffer from poor nutrition are the poor, who are precisely the people being targeted by new fluoridation programs. While being at heightened risk, poor families are less able to afford avoidance measures (e.g. bottled water or removal equipment).

36. Since dental decay is most concentrated in poor communities, we should be spending our efforts trying to increase the access to dental care for poor families. The real "Oral Health Crisis" that exists today in the
United States, is not a lack of fluoride but poverty and lack of dental insurance. The Surgeon General has estimated that 80% of dentists in the US do not treat children on Medicaid.

37. Fluoridation has been found to be ineffective at preventing one of the most serious oral health problems facing poor children, namely, baby bottle tooth decay, otherwise known as early childhood caries.

38. The early studies conducted in 1945 -1955 in the
US, which helped to launch fluoridation, have been heavily criticized for their poor methodology and poor choice of control communities. According to Dr. Hubert Arnold, a statistician from the University of California at Davis, the early fluoridation trials "are especially rich in fallacies, improper design, invalid use of statistical methods, omissions of contrary data, and just plain muddleheadedness and hebetude." In 2000, the British Government’s “York Review” could give no fluoridation trial a grade A classification – despite 50 years of research.

39. The
US Public Health Service first endorsed fluoridation in 1950, before one single trial had been completed!

40. Since 1950, it has been found that fluorides do little to prevent pit and fissure tooth decay, a fact that even the dental community has acknowledged. This is significant because pit and fissure tooth decay represents up to 85% of the tooth decay experienced by children today.

41. Despite the fact that we are exposed to far more fluoride today than we were in 1945 (when fluoridation began), the "optimal" fluoridation level is still 1 part per million, the same level deemed optimal in 1945!

42. The chemicals used to fluoridate water in the
US are not pharmaceutical grade. Instead, they come from the wet scrubbing systems of the superphosphate fertilizer industry. These chemicals (90% of which are sodium fluorosilicate and fluorosilicic acid), are classified hazardous wastes contaminated with various impurities. Recent testing by the National Sanitation Foundation suggest that the levels of arsenic in these chemicals are relatively high (up to 1.6 ppb after dilution into public water) and of potential concern.

43. These hazardous wastes have not been tested comprehensively. The chemical usually tested in animal studies is pharmaceutical grade sodium fluoride, not industrial grade fluorosilicic acid. The assumption being made is that by the time this waste product has been diluted, all the fluorosilicic acid will have been converted into free fluoride ion, and the other toxics and radioactive isotopes will be so dilute that they will not cause any harm, even with lifetime exposure. These assumptions have not been examined carefully by scientists, independent of the fluoridation program.

44. Studies by Masters and Coplan (1999, 2000) show an association between the use of fluorosilicic acid (and its sodium salt) to fluoridate water and an increased uptake of lead into children's blood. Because of lead’s acknowledged ability to damage the child’s developing brain, this is a very serious finding yet it is being largely ignored by fluoridating countries.

45. Sodium fluoride is an extremely toxic substance -- just 200 mg of fluoride ion is enough to kill a young child, and just 3-5 grams (e.g. a teaspoon) is enough to kill an adult. Both children (swallowing tablets/gels) and adults (accidents involving fluoridation equipment and filters on dialysis machines) have died from excess exposure.

46. Some of the earliest opponents of fluoridation were biochemists and at least 14 Nobel Prize winners are among numerous scientists who have expressed their reservations about the practice of fluoridation.

47. The recent Nobel Laureate in Medicine and Physiology, Dr. Arvid Carlsson (2000), was one of the leading opponents of fluoridation in
Sweden, and part of the panel that recommended that the Swedish government reject the practice, which they did in 1971. According to Carlsson: "I am quite convinced that water fluoridation, in a not-too-distant future, will be consigned to medical history...Water fluoridation goes against leading principles of pharmacotherapy, which is progressing from a stereotyped medication - of the type 1 tablet 3 times a day - to a much more individualized therapy as regards both dosage and selection of drugs. The addition of drugs to the drinking water means exactly the opposite of an individualized therapy".

48. While pro-fluoridation officials continue to promote fluoridation with undiminished fervor, they cannot defend the practice in open public debate – even when challenged to do so by organizations such as the Association for Science in the Public Interest, the
American College of Toxicology, or the US Environmental Protection Agency. According to Dr. Michael Easley, a prominent lobbyist for fluoridation in the US, "Debates give the illusion that a scientific controversy exists when no credible people support the fluorophobics' view". In light of proponents’ refusal to debate this issue, Dr. Edward Groth, a Senior Scientist at Consumers Union, observed that "the political profluoridation stance has evolved into a dogmatic, authoritarian, essentially antiscientific posture, one that discourages open debate of scientific issues".

49. Many scientists, doctors and dentists who have spoken out publicly on this issue have been subjected to censorship and intimidation. Most recently, Dr. Phyllis Mullenix was fired from her position as Chair of Toxicology at
Forsythe Dental Center for publishing her findings on fluoride and the brain; and Dr. William Marcus was fired from the EPA for questioning the government’s handling of the NTP’s fluoride-cancer study. Tactics like this would not be necessary if those promoting fluoridation were on secure scientific ground.

50. The
Union representing the scientists at US EPA headquarters in Washington DC is now on record as opposing water fluoridation. According to the Union’s Senior Vice President, Dr. William Hirzy: "In summary, we hold that fluoridation is an unreasonable risk. That is, the toxicity of fluoride is so great and the purported benefits associated with it are so small - if there are any at all - that requiring every man, woman and child in America to ingest it borders on criminal behavior on the part of governments."

To check references go to Paul Connett’s website: http://www.fluoridealert.org/50-reasons.htm


When it comes to controversies surrounding toxic chemicals, invested interests traditionally do their very best to discount animal studies and quibble with epidemiological findings. In the past, political pressures have led government agencies to drag their feet on regulating asbestos, benzene, DDT, PCBs, tetraethyl lead, tobacco and dioxins. With fluoridation we have had a fifty year delay. Unfortunately, because government officials have put so much of their credibility on the line defending fluoridation, and because of the huge liabilities waiting in the wings if they admit that fluoridation has caused an increase in hip fracture, arthritis, bone cancer, brain disorders or thyroid problems, it will be very difficult for them to speak honestly and openly about the issue. But they must, not only to protect millions of people from unnecessary harm, but to protect the notion that, at its core, public health policy must be based on sound science not political expediency. They have a tool with which to do this: it's called the Precautionary Principle. Simply put, this says: if in doubt leave it out. This is what most European countries have done and their children's teeth have not suffered, while their public's trust has been strengthened.

It is like a question from a Kafka play. Just how much doubt is needed on just one of the health concerns identified above, to override a benefit, which when quantified in the largest survey ever conducted in the US, amounts to less than one tooth surface (out of 128) in a child's mouth?

For those who would call for further studies, I say fine. Take the fluoride out of the water first and then conduct all the studies you want. This folly must end without further delay.

Further arguments against fluoridation, can be viewed at http://www.fluoridealert.org. Arguments for fluoridation can be found at http://www.ada.org and a more systematic presentation of fluoride’s toxic effects can be found at http://www.Slweb.org/bibliography.html

DAMS International  Newsletter,    July 2007 Issue


Higher Fluoride Gives Lower IQs,

More Retardation

By Leo Cashman


n Iranian study has found that children whose water fluoride is much higher have significantly lower IQs than comparable children drinking water with a low level of fluoride. The study was led by B. Seraj, MD at the Teheran University of Medical Science. The sample included  85 children from a village having low water fluoride levels, 0.4 parts per million (ppm), and 41 children from a village having higher fluoride levels, 2.5 ppm.  Both villages are in the Qazvin area of Iran and all of the children in the study had lived in their villages all their lives; the occupational status and the socioeconomic background of people living in the two villages was very similar.

The IQ differences were sharp. The mean IQ level was 98.9 in the low fluoride village versus 87.9 in the high fluoride village. In the low fluoride village, only 7.1% of the children fell into the “borderline retarded” category of IQ, (IQ from 70 and 79), while in the high fluoride village, 22% fell into that category. The high fluoride village also had many more children falling into the “dull normal” category, (IQ from 80 to 89).  60% of the low fluoride village children fell into the normal IQ category, (IQ of 90 to 109), while only 39% in the high fluoride had normal IQs.

16.5% of the low fluoride children were  bright normal” (IQ of 110 to 119), whereas only 4.9% of the high fluoride children were bright normal. 7.1% of children in the low fluoride village were in the “superior” IQ category, (IQ of 120-129); in the high fluoride village none of the children tested in as having superior IQs.

“High level of fluoride may be associated with impaired development of intelligence,” the study found.


In year 2000, Lu and others published a similar for children in two Chinese villages. The children in the higher fluoride village (3.15 ppm) had average IQs of 92, as compared with an average IQ of 103 for children in the lower (0.37 ppm) fluoride village.

In 2003 Xiang and others looked at children in six groups each having a different water fluoride level, ranging from the lowest level of 0.36 ppm to 4.16 ppm fluoride at the highest.   Mental retardation (an IQ below 80) rates increased as the level of fluoride increased. The retardation rate was  6.5% in the lowest fluoride group but retardation came in at 37.5% in the children drinking highest fluoride

Effect of high fluoride concentration in drinking water on children’s intelligence

Author(s): Seraj B, Shahrabi M, Falahzade M, Falahzade F, Akhondi N

Journal of Dental Medicine, Vol. 19, No. 2, Pages 80-86











Arsenic and Fluoride Exposure in Drinking Water: Children's IQ and Growth in Shanyin County, Shanxi Province, China


Fluoride Linked to Low IQ, Studies Show  http://fluoridealert.org/news/1655.html


Fluoride in Drinking Water: A Scientific Review of EPA's Standards (2006)   Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology




Confirmation of and explanations for elevated blood lead and other disorders in children exposed to water disinfection and fluoridation chemicals. Neurotoxicology. 2007 Sep;28(5):1032-42.  Coplan MJ, Patch SC, Masters RD, Bachman MS.

Silicofluorides (SiFs), fluosilicic acid (FSA) and sodium fluosilicate (NaFSA), are used to fluoridate over 90% of US fluoridated municipal water supplies. Living in communities with silicofluoride treated water (SiFW) is associated with two neurotoxic effects: (1) Prevalence of children with elevated blood lead (PbB>10microg/dL) is about double that in non-fluoridated communities (Risk Ratio 2, chi2p<0.01). SiFW is associated with serious corrosion of lead-bearing brass plumbing, producing elevated water lead (PbW) at the faucet. New data refute the long-prevailing belief that PbW contributes little to children's blood lead (PbB), it is likely to contribute 50% or more. (2) SiFW has been shown to interfere with cholinergic function. Unlike the fully ionized state of fluoride (F-) in water treated with sodium fluoride (NaFW), the SiF anion, [SiF6]2- in SiFW releases F- in a complicated dissociation process. Small amounts of incompletely dissociated [SiF6]2- or low molecular weight (LMW) silicic acid (SA) oligomers may remain in SiFW. A German PhD study found that SiFW is a more powerful inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) than NaFW. It is proposed here that SiFW induces protein mis-folding via a mechanism that would affect polypeptides in general, and explain dental fluorosis, a tooth enamel defect that is not merely "cosmetic" but a "canary in the mine" foretelling other adverse, albeit subtle, health and behavioral effects.

Association of silicofluoride treated water with elevated blood lead. Neurotoxicology. 2000 Dec;21(6):1091-100. Masters RD, Coplan MJ, Hone BT, Dykes JE.        RESULTS: For every age/race group, there was a consistently significant association of SiF treated community water and elevated blood lead.


Decreased intelligence in children and exposure to fluoride and arsenic in drinking water.  Cad Saude Publica. 2007;23 Suppl 4:S579-87. Rocha-Amador D, Navarro ME, Carrizales L, Morales R, Calderón J.        These data suggest that children exposed to either F or As have increased risks of reduced IQ scores.



Arsenic and fluoride exposure in drinking water: children's IQ and growth in Shanyin county, Shanxi province, China. Environ Health Perspect. 2007 Apr;115(4):643-7. Epub 2007 Jan 9. Wang SX, Wang ZH, Cheng XT, Li J, Sang ZP, Zhang XD, Han LL, Qiao XY, Wu ZM, Wang ZQ.



Fluorine as a factor in premature aging] [Article in Polish] Ann Acad Med Stetin. 2004;50 Suppl 1:9-13, Machoy-Mokrzyńska A.


Effects of fluoridation and disinfection agent combinations on lead leaching from leaded-brass parts. Neurotoxicology. 2007 Sep;28(5):1023-31. Maas RP, Patch SC, Christian AM, Coplan MJ.



How Much Arsenic is Fluoridation Adding to the Public Water Supply?


 October 24, 2000         Fluoride Action Network



Fluoride and Lead,  byFrances Frech,  http://sonic.net/kryptox/environ/lead/lead.htm


Chronic Fluoride Poisoning

This contradicts the website of the Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry of The University of Western Ontario where it says, "In the broadest sense, the term "Fluorosis" describes a state of toxicity of the trace element, Fluorine (commonly referred to in its ionic state as Fluoride) within an organism…Humans appear to vary considerably with respect to their susceptibility to Fluorosis. As a general guideline, prolonged total Fluoride intake exceeding 1.0 mg/day can produce clinical signs of Fluorosis in adults. " The site goes on to say, "Generally speaking, human Fluoride toxicity will manifest as any combination of;
§ Dental Fluorosis: the most obvious and easily diagnosed form of Fluorosis by a characteristic bilateral white mottling of the dentition. Dental Fluorosis is usually caused by over-exposure to Fluoride when the dental enamel is actively mineralizing during early childhood.
§ Skeletal Fluorosis: involves abnormal mineralization of bone and soft tissues and/or the disruption of normal activity of the osteocytes. For this reason, Skeletal Fluorosis often mimics "generic" osteoarthritis and/or osteoporosis in relatively young adults.
§ Systemic Fluorosis: due to the chemical nature of Fluoride and its action(s) within mammalian systems which are not limited to teeth and bone, Fluoride toxicity may potentially be linked to every major multiple cause ailment of the 20th century from cancer to
Attention Deficit Disorder.

Fluoride toxicity may be acute or chronic, with affects ranging from cosmetic damage, to disability and even death. With the exception of Dental Fluorosis, Fluoride-related illness is often attributed to other diseases or syndromes (i.e. osteoarthritis for Skeletal Fluorosis, cardiovascular failure for death by acute Fluoride poisoning) making Fluorosis in itself very difficult to track epidemiologically in the absence of an ecosystem health framework." 8

How to tell if you have fluorosis? Here's what they said:

"What are the symptoms of Fluorosis?

Though apparently vague and non-specific, most of the symptoms of Fluoride toxicity point towards some kind of profound metabolic dysfunction, and are strikingly similar to the symptoms of Hypothyroidism.

Symptoms of Fluorosis

Learning Disorders/Difficulty Concentrating/Incoherence/Memory Loss/Confusion
Body Temperature Disturbances/Cold Shivers
3. Chest Pains
Heart Palpitations

6. Dizziness/Vertigo
7. Dyspepsia
Excessive Sleepiness/Fatigue
Joint Pains
Sensitivity to Light
Shortness of Breath
Difficulties Swallowing
Visual Disturbances

Major Related Diagnoses: Alzheimer's Disease/demyelinizing diseases, anemia, arthritis, breast cancer, carpal tunnel syndrome, decrease in testosterone/spermatogenesis, altered vas deferens/testicular growth, decreased dental arch, dental crowding, delayed tooth eruption, diabetes insipidus, diarrhea, Down Syndrome, early onset of puberty, eosinophilia, eye/ear/nose disorders, fever, gastro-intestinal disturbances, gingivitis, heart disorders, hypertension, hypoplasia, hypothyroidism/thyroid cancer, kidney dysfunction, osteosarcoma, low birth weight, candidiasis, multiple sclerosis, oral squamous cell carcinoma, Parkinson's Disease, seizures, slurred speech, skin irritations, ankylosing spondylitis, telangiectasia, thrombosis, ulcerative colitis, uterine cancer, vaginal bleeding, weak pulse." 8

Fluoride and the Thyroid

A major point of disturbance about the USDA's tolerance of 8 – 10 mg/day of fluoride is that it only takes 2 – 5 mg/day to disrupt the thyroid. Here's what Fluoride Alert has to say:
"Starting in the 1930s and extending through to the 1970s, fluoride was utilized by European and South American doctors as a drug to treat HYPER-thyroidism (over-active thyroid).

Of concern today in the
United States, and other highly fluoridated countries, is the fact that some people are now regularly receiving doses of fluoride that overlap, and exceed, the doses once shown to reduce the activity of the thyroid.

Whereas doses of 2 to 5 mg/day of fluoride were shown effective at depressing thyroid function, adults in fluoridated communities in the
U.S. are now regularly receiving between 1.6 and 6.6 mg/day according to a 1991 report from the Department of Health and Human Services.
While it may be that the thyroid in a patient with hyperthyroidism is particularly susceptible to the anti-thyroid actions of fluoride, there is concern that current fluoride exposures may be playing a role in the widespread incidence of HYPO-thyroidism (under-active thyroid) in the U.S.

Hypothyrodisim, most commonly diagnosed in women over 40, is a serious condition with a diverse range of symptoms including: fatigue, depression, weight gain, hair loss, muscle pains, increased levels of "bad" cholesterol (LDL), and heart disease.. The drug (Synthroid) used to treat hypothyroidism is now one of the top five prescribed drugs in the
U.S." 9
The USDA document did not mention effects on the thyroid, or any of the symptoms described by the
University of Western Ontario. One has to assume that they did not analyze for safety of the long-term effects of such high fluoride consumption as it relates to our thyroids, bones, or other body organs.

1) http://www.epa.gov/fedrgstr/EPA-PEST/2005/March/Day-04/p4281.htm
2) http://www.cdc.gov/oralhealth/waterfluoridation/other.htm
3) Honeyville's Whole Dried Eggs
4) http://www.emedicine.com/EMERG/topic181.htm
5) Minnesota Poison Control System http://www.mnpoison.org/index.asp?pageID=151
6) http://www.ars.usda.gov/is/np/mba/oct00/sulf.htm
7) Federal Register Environmental Documents http://www.epa.gov/fedrgstr/EPA-PEST/2005/July/Day-15/p13982.htm
8) Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, The University of Western Ontario CASE STUDY FOR THE 4TH YEAR COURSE IN ECOSYSTEM HEALTH
DENTAL FLUOROSIS (under development) http://www.med.uwo.ca/ecosystemhealth/education/casestudies/fluorosismed.htm
9) http://www.fluoridealert.org/health/thyroid/
10) Washington Post "Professor at Harvard Is Being Investigated" By Juliet Eilperin Wednesday, July 13, 2005; Page A03



Fluoride Exposure May Contribute to Early Puberty and Insomnia


Up until the 1990s, no research had ever been conducted to determine the impact of fluoride on the pineal gland -- a small gland located between the two hemispheres of the brain that regulates the production of the hormone melatonin. Melatonin is a hormone that helps regulate the onset of puberty and helps protect the body from cell damage caused by free radicals.

It is now known -- thanks to the meticulous research of Dr. Jennifer Luke from the
University of Surrey in England -- that the pineal gland is the primary target of fluoride accumulation within your body.

After finding that the pineal gland is a major target for fluoride accumulation in humans, Dr. Luke conducted animal experiments to determine if the accumulated fluoride could impact the functioning of the gland -- particularly the gland's regulation of melatonin.

Luke found that animals treated with fluoride had lower levels of circulating melatonin, as reflected by reduced levels of melatonin metabolites in the animals' urine. This reduced level of circulating melatonin was accompanied -- as might be expected -- by an earlier onset of puberty in the fluoride-treated female animals.


·                     Fluoride Action Network November 2008