Dental Amalgam, FDA Docket 03N-0169


Volume 1

ADA submission -bibliography          c1-vol1.pdf        (A+/P)     


 scientific articles & URLs         c2 (A)

letter from Maine Dental Assoc. c3    (NS)

letter from ADEA    c4                       (NS)

Hal Huggins letter sumarizing experience with 2500 patients, including 1000 with MS and                     documentation c6                   (A+)

Stuart Schekner(DDS) personal case history and study c7    01-03 (A)

Debbie Bevel- personal case history c8  (A)

Paul Moller letter and study supp 1-01 to 03 (A)

Robert Siblerud letter with 14 studies he authored supp 2 01 to 016 (A+)

H Huggins, letter regarding mercury test, test experience, and British Gulf War Disease cases

              Supp 3- 01 vol 1 (A)

Sweden   The Dental Material Commission - Care and Consideration -M Berlin

                  supp3- 01 vol4 (A+)

H Huggins, T Levy,   paper- CF Protein Changes in MS  after amalgam removal, 1998

          Supp 3-02                  (A)

newspaper article on over 100,000 veterans with Gulf War Disease    Supp 3-03    (NS)

H Huggins, paper- Recovery from Gulf War Disease      Supp 3-04     (A-)

S Langworth, Huddinger Hospital paper        Supp 4-01                      (P-)

C.K. Bleslus et al, Dental Amalgam and Mercury,   Biological Therapy, Vol XIII, 1995

              Supp 5     (A)

Pam Factor-Litvak et al Mercury derived from dental amalgam and neuropsychologic function                        2003        Supp 6-01                                  (P)

articles with URLs          c2-01     (A)

rest are duplicates of the above submissions


Volume 2       Case history and documentation,   emc 01     (A)

Dr. Vera Stejskal- MELISA study- effects of mercury immune reactivity(1998)    emc1-01 (A)

Michael Davis, DDS,   articles on amalgam,       emc2          (A)

Steve Markus, DDS      letter with information     c3               (A)

Pat King, letter, personal case history                    c4              (A)

Nancy Richards, bibliography of articles              c5               (A)

L.Campbell,   bibliography of articles                   c6             (A)

David Kennedy, DDS      summary and bibliog   & IAOMT summary      c7 & c7-01       (A+)

B. Windham(DAMS)     FS1(amalgam is largest source of exposure in most)  

          over 100 peer-reviewed studies including large NIDR military population study

                  c8   (A+)

B. Windham(DAMS)    FS2f (amalgam is largest source of mercury in sewers and sewer sludge and thus major source in water bodies, fish, wildlife, crops, rain-since outgased from soil-     30% of U.S. lakes and similar for rivers and most bays have warnings for mercury in fish)         c9      (A+)

B. Windham(DAMS) FS3     Common adverse health effects caused by mercury from amalgam,    c10        (A+)

B Windham(DAMS) FS4   common developmental neurological conditions caused by mercury and toxic metal exposure including ADHD, learning disabilities, etc. and the connection to juvenile delinquency, criminality, violence.                           c11         (A)


 B Windham(DAMS) FS6       Health effects to dentists and dental staff caused by occupational               exposure to mercury.     c12       (A+)

 B Windham(DAMS) FS7    Common oral conditions caused by dental amalgam,                 c13            (A+)

B Windham(DAMS) FS8    Endocrine, developmental, and reproductive effects of mercury from amalgam.           c14        (A+)  

B Windham(DAMS) FS9   The mercury connection to common neurological and immune related chronic degenerative health conditions   (MS,CFS,FM,ALS,PD,Lupus,AlzD,RA, Depression,ADD,etc.)      c15   (A+)

B Windham(DAMS) FS12       Documentation that amalgam is the largest source of mercury in most and of methyl mercury in many.                                                            c16    (A+)

B Windham(DAMS) FS13       Mercury Vapor Causes Neurological Developmental and Behavioral Effects at Lower Levels than Other Forms of Mercury.    emc17    (A+)


B Windham(DAMS) FS14    The mercury connection to allergies and immune reactive conditions.         c18     (A+)

B Windham(DAMS) FS16       Studies document high mercury exposures from dental amalgam fillings and fish and common adverse neurological and cardiovascular effects.

                      c19           (A+)

B Windham(DAMS) FS20    Amalgam is the largest source of mercury in most and of methyl          mercury in many-methylation.     c20 (A+)

B Windham(DAMS) FS17   Blood tests not reliable indicator of mercury body burden or mercury toxicity. Better options are available. High mercury body burden and mercury toxicity and effects are even more common than acknowledged due to failure of the blood test to identify most of those affected. Doctors with experience at treating mercury toxicity mostly use other tests.                                                                       c21    (A+)


Engel P, "Health Observations Before and After Amalgam Removal", Schweiz Monatsschr Zahnmed 1998;108(8):811‑3      www.amalgam‑           c22   (A+)

Dr. M Hanson research suggested;                                                                        c23

The Dental Material Commission ‑‑ Care and Consideration' assigned Maths Berlin, in autumn 2002, to report on the past five years' research literature on amalgam and the health hazards, if any, of mercury. Professor Berlin compiled the environmental medicine risk analysis of mercury and amalgam issued by the Swedish Council for Planning and Coordination of Research (FRN) in 1998 (FRN, Report 1998:22). This risk analysis was based on literature published between 1993 and November 1997. The present risk analysis builds further on this material, and analyses literature published between November 1997 and November 2002.                      c24       (A+)

Mercury in brain tissue of infants


Eggleston D W, Malmström C, Nylander M , Necropsy studies clearly showed higher mercury (Hg) concentrations in bulk tissue of brain stem tissue from 26 infants compared with brain tissue of the occipital lobes from 21 adults of the same population in California, USA (Table 1).                                                     c25       

Amalgam derived mercury in feces,  Christer Malmström DDS, Mats Hansson PhD

            och Magnus Nylander MD, DDS, ISTERH Third International Conference

and NTES Fourth Nordic Conference on Disease. Stockholm (Huddinge), may 25 ‑ 29, 1992.                    c26       (A)

Gopal KV.  Neurotoxic effects of mercury on auditory cortex networks growing on microelectrode arrays: a prelimary analysis.  Neurotoxicol Teratol 2003 Jan‑Feb;25 (1):

            Pages 69‑76                                                                                       c27        (A)

Bartova J, Prochazkova J, Kratka Z, Benetkova K, Venclikova Z, Sterzl I.  Dental Amalgam as one of the risk factors in autoimmune diseases.  Neuroendocrinol Lett  2003 Feb‑Apr;24(1‑2): pages 65‑7                                                             c28          (A+)

Titovets E, Nechipurenko N, Griboedova T, Vlasyuk P.    Acta Neurochir Suppl 2000;76:

            Pages 279‑81                                                                                       c30     (A)

Lymberi P, Hirsch F, Kuhn J, Ternynck T, Druet P, Avrameas S.  Autoimmunity induced by HGC12 in Brown‑Norway rats. II. Monoclonal antibodies sharing specificities and idiotypes with mouse natural monoclonal antibodies. J Immunol 1986 May 1;136(9):Pages 3277‑81                                                     c31           (A)

Hirsch F, Kuhn J, Ventura M, Vial MC, Fournie G, Druet P.  J Immunol 1986 May 1;136(9):

            Pages 3272‑6                                                                       C32       (A)

Shenker BJ, Pankoski L, Zekavat A, Shapiro IM. Mercury‑induced apoptosis in human lymphocytes: caspase activation is linked to redox status. Antioxid Redox Signal  2002

            Jun;4(3):Pages 379‑89                                              c33               (A)

Wiatr Halny   personal case history, with bibliography of articles               c34 (A)

G.H. Smith, DDS       Bibliography of science articles showing harm          c35     (A+)

Studies demonstrating a correlation between amalgam dental fillings and brain mercury levels:

Lakartidningen 1986 Feb 12;83(7):519‑522; Swedish Dental Journal 1987;11(5):179‑187

Sci Total Environ 1987 Oct;66:263‑268; J Prosthet Dent 1987 Dec:58(6):704‑707

FASEB J 1989 Dec;3(14):2651‑2646; Sci Total Environ 1990 Dec 1;99(1‑2):1‑22

Sci Total Environ 1993 Sep 30;138(1‑3):101‑115; J Trace Elem Med Biol 1995 Jul;9(2):82‑87

Zentralbl Hyg U:mweltmed 1996 Feb;198(3):275‑291; FASEB J 1998 Aug;12(11):971‑980

Biometals 1999 Sep;12(3):227‑231


Title: "Retrograde Degeneration of Neurite Membrane Structural Integrity of Nerve Growth Cones Following In Vitro Exposure To mercury."

Authors: Leong, CW; Syed, NI; Lorscheider, FL.

Journal: NeuroReport, 12(4):733‑737, 2001.                                     c36        (A+)


NeuroendicrinologyLetters Vol.23 No.5/6, Oct‑Dec 2002; Dental amalgam removal improves

       health  2002; 23:459‑482  pii: NEL235602A12  PMID: 12500173   (796 patients)  c37 (A+)

Large bibliography documenting amalgam is the main cause of oral lichen planus and replacing amaglam usually cures the condition                                                       c38     (A+)


            Psychological Reports, 1994, 74,67‑80, Psychometric Evidence That Mercury From Silver Dental Fillings May Be An FBI Factor In Depression, Excessive Anger, Anxiety,

by Robert L. Siblerud, John Motl, Eldon Kienholz and Chicago Tribune, Probing the Violent Mind,                                                                                        c39        (A)

 Dent Res 1998 Apr;77(4):615 24    Mercury in biological fluids after amalgam removal                             Sandborgh Englund G, Elinder CG, Langworth S, Schutz A, Ekstrand J 

            Department of Basic Oral Sciences, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden.  c40 (A)

Oskarsson A, Palminger Hallen I & Sundberg J.   Exposure to toxic elements via breast milk

            Analyst 120(3):765‑770 (1995)                                        c41        (A)

J Dent Res 1998 Jun;77(6):1415‑25   Activation  of the immune system and systemic immune‑complex deposits in Brown Norway rats with dental amalgam restorations.

Hultman P, Lindh U, Horsted‑Bindslev P.  Department of Health and Environment, Linkoping University, Sweden.                                  c42            (A)

Skare I & Engqvist A  Human Exposure to Mercury and Silver Released from Dental Amalgam Restorations.  Archives of Environmental Health 49:384‑394 (1994)      c43      (A)

Rowland AS, Baird DD, Weinberg CR, Shore DL, Shy CM, Wilcox AJ      The Effect of Occupational Exposure to Mercury Vapour on the Fertility of  Female Dental Assistants

         Occupational & Environmental Medicine. 51(1):28‑34, 1994 Jan          c44        (A)

B Windham(DAMS)  "Dental Amalgam Fillings" is the Number One Source of Mercury in People and Exposure Exceeds Government Health Standards for Inorganic mercury(vapor)       (annotated bibliography: references at end of summary)     c45   (A+)


Amalgam is the largest source of inorganic and organic mercury in most people

9. Kingman A, Albertini T, Brown LJ, Mercury concentrations in urine and whole blood associated with amalgam exposure in a US military population., J Dent Res 1998 Mar;77(3):461‑71   (population of over 1000 Air Force personnel; found each 10 amalgam surfaces increased mercury in urine by approx. 1 microgram per liter)

11. Leistevuo J et al, Dental amalgam fillings and the amount of organic mercury in human saliva. Caries Res 2001 May‑Jun;35(3):163‑6; &

12.  Sellars WA, Sellars R. Univ. Of Texas Southwestern Medical School "Methyl mercury in dental amalgams in the human mouth", Journal of Nutritional & Environmental Medicine 1996; 6(1): 33‑37                                           c46        (A+)

B Windham(DAMS) Mercury Vapor Causes Neurological Developmental and Behavioral Effects at Lower Levels than Other Forms of Mercury;     &   Amalgam is largest source of exposure.  review and references

              c47    (A+)

B Windham(DAMS) Documentation of Common Cardiovascular Health Effects from Mercury Amalgam,     review and references,                            c48             (A+)

B Windham(DAMS)     Mercury‑Caused Endocrine Conditions Causing Widespread Adverse          Health Effects, Cognitive Effects, and Fertility Effects   , review and references,

                  c50           (A+)

Claire Wachter, personal case:      Hashimoto's disease                              c51   

Marilynn Carter      Bibliography of science articles                                    c52       (A)

Karen Snyder    Personal case: recovery from disability after amalgam replacement    c53   (A)

Marie Flowers    Bibliography of science articles                        c55 to c88                     (A+)

Kazantzis G.  Mercury exposure and early affects: an overview Med Lav  2002 May‑Jun: 93(3)

            pages: 139‑147                         c89           (A)

B Windham(DAMS)  "Dental Amalgam Fillings" is the Number One Source of Mercury in People and  Exposure Exceeds Government Health Standards for Inorganic mercury(vapor)    (annotated bibliography)                                             c90        (A+)

B Windham(DAMS) Depression and other Neurotransmitter Related Conditions‑ the mercury connection; review and references,                c91      (A+)


B Windham(DAMS)  Infertility, Birth Defects, and Fetal Developmental Effects  Related To Mercury From Amalgam Dental Fillings,   review and over 150 references,

                               c92        (A+)

B Windham(DAMS) Oral galvanism and Electromagnetic Fields(EMF): factors along with mercury's high volatility and extreme toxicity in significant exposure levels and oral effects from amalgam fillings.    review and references                c93        (A+)


B Windham(DAMS) Documentation of high exposure levels to mercury from dental amalgam          and the mechanisms by which mercury from amalgam causes over 30 chronic health        conditions; with documentation of over 50,000 clinical cases of recovery or significant         improvement from all of those conditions after amalgam replacement;    review and over            3,000 peer-reviewed references.

                             c94     c94-01    c95        (A++)

B Windham(DAMS) Blood tests not reliable indicator of mercury body burden or mercury           toxicity. Better options are available. High mercury body burden and mercury toxicity and          effects are even more common than acknowledged due to failure of the blood test to          identify most of those affected. Doctors with experience at treating mercury toxicity mostly          use other tests.         c96     (A)

B Windham(DAMS) Below is the URL of a review of over 100 peer‑reviewed studies that                documents the endocrine system effects of mercury from amalgam, which affects millions of        people.      c97 , c97-01       (A+)

B Windham(DAMS)  Below are URLs (with attached files‑take your choice) of papers with        peer‑reviewed studies that document the mechanisms by which mercury from amalgam       causes CFS, Fibromyalgia,  Lupus,  ALS, Alzheimer's, Parkinson's Disease, MS, etc.    c98                    c99-01     (A+)                        c100-01    (A+)                     c100-02    (A+)                        c100-03    (A+)
                     c100-04    (A+)

Mary Ann Newall       Bibliography of Science articles showing amalgam harm    c101    (A+)

Mary Ann Newall       Bibliography of Science pre-1996 science articles     c102        (A)

Mary Ann Newall       Bibliography of Science articles showing amalgam harm    c103    (A+)

Mary Ann Newall       Bibliography of Science articles showing amalgam harm    c104    (A+)

Paul Rubin, DDS,   Bibliography of Science articles showing amalgam harm    c105    (A+)

CSDA letter                                                                            C106       NS

1:)  150 Years of Dental Amalgam by F. Berglund (with permission of the author) on published             case report of amalgam poisoning and amalgam allergy (122 studies & 123 studies resp).

        It seems more than a coincidence that dentistry readily acknowledges that there are           published report of amalgam allegy but somehow seems to have missed just as many             reports of poisoning.                   c107-01

2:) Health effects of amalgam removal. 22 studies involving 4611 patients by Mats Hanson. This        meta analysis will be included in the current Dental Materials Evaluation by the Dept. of        Health, Sweden.                      c107-02

          Mats Hanson, PhD, Fellow of the IAOMT (US/Can), Scientific committee of the Swedish         IAOMT, Scientific advisor to the Assoc. Sw. Dental Mercury Patients (sister organisation to         DAMS, USA), member of the Internat. Reference Group of the Metal Biology Ctr, Uppsala         Univ, Sweden                                  c107      01 & 02         (A+)


Stuart Schecter, DDS     Article           c108-01

Marie Flowers    Science Articles     c109 to c115               (A+)

Paul Moller       Article             c116           (A)

Marie Flowers Science article      c117 to c121

Maryanne Rygg      Bibliography of science articles    c122         (A+)

Dr. J.M. Hardy, DMD,   Bibliography from his book: Mercury-Free :    The Wisdom behind the global consumer movement to ban silver dental fillings"     c123  -01     (A+)

Dwight Florence   Bibliography of science articles showing amalgam harm     c124     (A)

Leslie Joy Smith Bibliography of science articles showing amalgam harm     c125     (A)

Ann Meyer    Bibliography of science articles showing amalgam harm     c126     (A)

Letter from Lousiana Dental Association,                                   c127            NS

Lyle & Trish Brown     URLs of web sites documenting harm from amalgam       c128     (A)

duplicates again:         Personal case and documentation                                c1     (A)

Michael Davis, DDS        Letter and documentation                                     c2       (A)

Steve Markus, DDS         Letter and information                                         c3         (A)